Interaction of specific temporal phase relations of circadian neural oscillations and long term photoperiodic responses in Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica.Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2015 Jun-Jul; 217-218:54-61.GC
Specific temporal phase relations of neural oscillations are reported to regulate gonadal activity in many avian species but their interaction with photo-sexual response are still unclear. Hence in the present study, 3week old Japanese quail maintained in short days (experiment 1) received normal saline (SD control) or serotonin precursor 5-HTP and dopamine precursor l-DOPA injections at the interval of 12h (SD 12-h) for 13days. At 37week of age, one subgroup of SD 12-h received these drugs at the interval of 8-h (SD 12-h+8-h). In the second experiment, 3week old quail were injected with 5-HTP and l-DOPA 8h apart (LD 8-h) and then maintained under long days. At the age of 37weeks, one subgroup of these LD quail was retreated with 5-HTP and l-DOPA at the interval of 8h (LD 8-h+8-h). Cloacal gland volume was monitored weekly up to 45weeks of age in both experiments and other reproductive parameters were monitored at 23 and 45week of age. These results indicate that 12-h phase relation of neurotransmitter precursors not only initiates early onset of scotorefractoriness i.e., full development of gonad even under short-day length but maintains it continuously (a long lasting effect) unlike control and the 8-h relation dissipates it, making the quail scotosensitive. On the other hand, the 8-h phase relation suppresses the gonado-stimulatory effect of long days but this effect is transitory. Thus the 12-h phase relation is gonado-stimulatory under short day conditions and the 8-h relation is gonado-inhibitory even under long days, inducing scotorefractoriness and photorefractoriness, respectively, it is suggested that effects of specific temporal phase relation of circadian neural oscillations similar to photoperiodic effects, are not only mediated by HPG axis but may also modulate the classical photoperiodic responses of Japanese quail.