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Dietary patterns and asthma prevalence, incidence and control.
Clin Exp Allergy 2015; 45(11):1673-80CE

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The increased asthma prevalence in westernized societies has been suggested to be related to environment exposures and lifestyle changes, particularly diet. We aimed to explore the association between dietary patterns and asthma prevalence, incidence and control in a nationally representative population.

METHODS

Data from 32,644 adults, 53% female, from the 4th Portuguese National Health Survey were analysed. Prevalence of asthma was 5.3%; 'current asthma', defined by asthma symptoms within previous year, 3.5%; 'current medicated asthma' defined by use of asthma medication within previous year, 3.0%; 'current severe asthma' defined by emergency visit because of asthma within previous year, 1.4%; and 'incident asthma', 0.2%. Dietary patterns (DP) were identified by latent trait models based on dietary intake. Unconditional logistic regression models were performed to analyse association between DP and asthma. Age, gender, education, family income, proxy reporting information, smoking, body mass index and physical activity level were analysed as confounders.

RESULTS

Two of the five identified DP were associated with asthma: 'high fat, sugar and salt' DP (positively correlated with pastry, chocolate and sweet desserts, candies, salty snacks, chips, fruit juices, soft drinks and alcoholic beverages consumption at snacks) was associated with asthma prevalence (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.24) and current severe asthma (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.48), while 'fish, fruit and vegetables' DP (positively correlated with fish, vegetables and fruit intake at meals) was negatively associated with current (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.73, 0.98), and current medicated asthma (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.72, 0.98), after adjustment for confounders.

CONCLUSION & CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Our results suggest a protective association between 'fish, vegetables and fruit' DP and current asthma and current medicated asthma, and a detrimental association between 'high fat, sugar and salt' DP and severe asthma prevalence, further supporting the rational for diet and lifestyle intervention studies in asthma based on whole dietary patterns and physical activity.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.Laboratory of Immunology, Basic and Clinical Immunology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. Immunoallergology Department, Centro Hospitalar São João, Porto, Portugal.Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. Epiunit - Public Health Institute, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. Research Centre on Physical Activity and Health, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.Laboratory of Immunology, Basic and Clinical Immunology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. Immunoallergology Department, Centro Hospitalar São João, Porto, Portugal.Epiunit - Public Health Institute, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. Department Clinical Epidemiology, Predictive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.Epiunit - Public Health Institute, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. Department Clinical Epidemiology, Predictive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. Department of Medical Education and Simulation Clinical Epidemiology, Predictive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. Research Centre on Physical Activity and Health, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25818037

Citation

Barros, R, et al. "Dietary Patterns and Asthma Prevalence, Incidence and Control." Clinical and Experimental Allergy : Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 45, no. 11, 2015, pp. 1673-80.
Barros R, Moreira A, Padrão P, et al. Dietary patterns and asthma prevalence, incidence and control. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015;45(11):1673-80.
Barros, R., Moreira, A., Padrão, P., Teixeira, V. H., Carvalho, P., Delgado, L., ... Moreira, P. (2015). Dietary patterns and asthma prevalence, incidence and control. Clinical and Experimental Allergy : Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 45(11), pp. 1673-80. doi:10.1111/cea.12544.
Barros R, et al. Dietary Patterns and Asthma Prevalence, Incidence and Control. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015;45(11):1673-80. PubMed PMID: 25818037.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary patterns and asthma prevalence, incidence and control. AU - Barros,R, AU - Moreira,A, AU - Padrão,P, AU - Teixeira,V H, AU - Carvalho,P, AU - Delgado,L, AU - Lopes,C, AU - Severo,M, AU - Moreira,P, PY - 2014/10/17/received PY - 2015/02/05/revised PY - 2015/03/11/accepted PY - 2015/3/31/entrez PY - 2015/3/31/pubmed PY - 2016/8/4/medline KW - asthma KW - control KW - diet KW - dietary patterns KW - prevalence SP - 1673 EP - 80 JF - Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology JO - Clin. Exp. Allergy VL - 45 IS - 11 N2 - BACKGROUND: The increased asthma prevalence in westernized societies has been suggested to be related to environment exposures and lifestyle changes, particularly diet. We aimed to explore the association between dietary patterns and asthma prevalence, incidence and control in a nationally representative population. METHODS: Data from 32,644 adults, 53% female, from the 4th Portuguese National Health Survey were analysed. Prevalence of asthma was 5.3%; 'current asthma', defined by asthma symptoms within previous year, 3.5%; 'current medicated asthma' defined by use of asthma medication within previous year, 3.0%; 'current severe asthma' defined by emergency visit because of asthma within previous year, 1.4%; and 'incident asthma', 0.2%. Dietary patterns (DP) were identified by latent trait models based on dietary intake. Unconditional logistic regression models were performed to analyse association between DP and asthma. Age, gender, education, family income, proxy reporting information, smoking, body mass index and physical activity level were analysed as confounders. RESULTS: Two of the five identified DP were associated with asthma: 'high fat, sugar and salt' DP (positively correlated with pastry, chocolate and sweet desserts, candies, salty snacks, chips, fruit juices, soft drinks and alcoholic beverages consumption at snacks) was associated with asthma prevalence (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.24) and current severe asthma (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.48), while 'fish, fruit and vegetables' DP (positively correlated with fish, vegetables and fruit intake at meals) was negatively associated with current (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.73, 0.98), and current medicated asthma (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.72, 0.98), after adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSION & CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Our results suggest a protective association between 'fish, vegetables and fruit' DP and current asthma and current medicated asthma, and a detrimental association between 'high fat, sugar and salt' DP and severe asthma prevalence, further supporting the rational for diet and lifestyle intervention studies in asthma based on whole dietary patterns and physical activity. SN - 1365-2222 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25818037/Dietary_patterns_and_asthma_prevalence_incidence_and_control_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/cea.12544 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -