A histological evaluation of development and axis formation in freshwater fish ectoparasite Argulus bengalensis Ramakrishna, 1951 (Crustacea: Branchiura).Parasitol Res. 2015 Jun; 114(6):2199-212.PR
The present investigation was carried out to underscore the developmental events of a crustacean ectoparasite of fish, Argulus bengalensis. Serial histological sections of the embryo were made at lateral, sagittal and longitudinal planes to explain its cleavage, gastrulation and axis specification. The centrolecithal egg of A. bengalensis underwent meroblastic superficial cleavage. The cleavage initiated at the future dorsal side of the egg within 5 h to 5 h and 30 min of incubation. Consequently, a small mass of energids appeared superficially at the future dorsal side within 6 h. Later, energids were found at the future ventral and lateral sides. A syncytial blastoderm was formed around the centrally placed yolk material which was transformed into a cellular blastoderm within 30 h of incubation. In the blastoderm, two cell masses were formed at the dorsal and ventral part which initially extended towards each other and later spread out though future anterior-posterior direction. The pressure exerted by the cell flow displaced the entire yolk material at the future postero-ventral side. At the time of egg laying, a prototype of the embryonic axes is determined. The substratum side of the egg formed the dorsal part, whilst the side facing water turned to the ventral part. The broader end of the egg formed the anterior side and the narrow end formed the posterior side of the embryo. The anterior-posterior axis formation was initiated within 72 to 96 h of incubation when the blastodermal cells displaced the yolk material at the future posterior end. Within 120 h of incubation, the germ layers of the embryo were determined. The study reveals that the cleavage pattern of A. bengalensis shows close similarities with that of the Malacostraca amongst the crustaceans and dipteran and hymenopteran amongst the insects.