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Preventing the Development of Observationally Learnt Fears in Children by Devaluing the Model's Negative Response.
J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2015 Oct; 43(7):1355-67.JA

Abstract

Vicarious learning has become an established indirect pathway to fear acquisition. It is generally accepted that associative learning processes underlie vicarious learning; however, whether this association is a form of conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US) learning or stimulus-response (CS-CR) learning remains unclear. Traditionally, these types of learning can be dissociated in a US revaluation procedure. The current study explored the effects of post-vicarious learning US revaluation on acquired fear responses. Ninety-four children (46 males and 48 females) aged 6 to 10 years first viewed either a fear vicarious learning video or a neutral vicarious learning video followed by random allocation to one of three US revaluation conditions: inflation; deflation; or control. Inflation group children were presented with still images of the adults in the video and told that the accompanying sound and image of a very fast heart rate monitor belonged to the adult. The deflation group were shown the same images but with the sound and image of a normal heart rate. The control group received no US revaluation. Results indicated that inflating how scared the models appeared to be did not result in significant increases in children's fear beliefs, avoidance preferences, avoidance behavior or heart rate for animals above increases caused by vicarious learning. In contrast, US devaluation resulted in significant decreases in fear beliefs and avoidance preferences. Thus, the findings provide evidence that CS-US associations underpin vicarious learning and suggest that US devaluation may be a successful method for preventing children from developing fear beliefs following a traumatic vicarious learning episode with a stimulus.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychology, Kingston University, Penrhyn Road, Kingston-upon-Thames, Surrey, KT1 2EE, UK.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25822917

Citation

Reynolds, Gemma, et al. "Preventing the Development of Observationally Learnt Fears in Children By Devaluing the Model's Negative Response." Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, vol. 43, no. 7, 2015, pp. 1355-67.
Reynolds G, Field AP, Askew C. Preventing the Development of Observationally Learnt Fears in Children by Devaluing the Model's Negative Response. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2015;43(7):1355-67.
Reynolds, G., Field, A. P., & Askew, C. (2015). Preventing the Development of Observationally Learnt Fears in Children by Devaluing the Model's Negative Response. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(7), 1355-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-015-0004-0
Reynolds G, Field AP, Askew C. Preventing the Development of Observationally Learnt Fears in Children By Devaluing the Model's Negative Response. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2015;43(7):1355-67. PubMed PMID: 25822917.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Preventing the Development of Observationally Learnt Fears in Children by Devaluing the Model's Negative Response. AU - Reynolds,Gemma, AU - Field,Andy P, AU - Askew,Chris, PY - 2015/3/31/entrez PY - 2015/3/31/pubmed PY - 2016/6/18/medline SP - 1355 EP - 67 JF - Journal of abnormal child psychology JO - J Abnorm Child Psychol VL - 43 IS - 7 N2 - Vicarious learning has become an established indirect pathway to fear acquisition. It is generally accepted that associative learning processes underlie vicarious learning; however, whether this association is a form of conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US) learning or stimulus-response (CS-CR) learning remains unclear. Traditionally, these types of learning can be dissociated in a US revaluation procedure. The current study explored the effects of post-vicarious learning US revaluation on acquired fear responses. Ninety-four children (46 males and 48 females) aged 6 to 10 years first viewed either a fear vicarious learning video or a neutral vicarious learning video followed by random allocation to one of three US revaluation conditions: inflation; deflation; or control. Inflation group children were presented with still images of the adults in the video and told that the accompanying sound and image of a very fast heart rate monitor belonged to the adult. The deflation group were shown the same images but with the sound and image of a normal heart rate. The control group received no US revaluation. Results indicated that inflating how scared the models appeared to be did not result in significant increases in children's fear beliefs, avoidance preferences, avoidance behavior or heart rate for animals above increases caused by vicarious learning. In contrast, US devaluation resulted in significant decreases in fear beliefs and avoidance preferences. Thus, the findings provide evidence that CS-US associations underpin vicarious learning and suggest that US devaluation may be a successful method for preventing children from developing fear beliefs following a traumatic vicarious learning episode with a stimulus. SN - 1573-2835 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25822917/Preventing_the_Development_of_Observationally_Learnt_Fears_in_Children_by_Devaluing_the_Model's_Negative_Response_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-015-0004-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -