Removal of carbamazepine from spiked municipal wastewater using electro-Fenton process.Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2015 Aug; 22(15):11513-25.ES
The electrochemical degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ) in both synthetic solutions (CBZo = 12 mg/L) and enriched municipal effluents (CBZo = 60-70 μg/L) was investigated using an electro-Fenton (EF) process. Different operating parameters were investigated, including current intensity, pH, reaction time, ferrous ion concentration, and the type of anode material. The current intensity, the type of anode material, and the concentration of ferrous ions played an important role in the CBZ degradation efficiency. The degradation was mainly attributed to direct anodic oxidation. The best operating conditions for the synthetic sample were obtained at a current density of 0.2 A, a pH of 3.0, and 120 min of treatment using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode in the presence of 0.25 mM of Fe(2+). Under these conditions, 52% of total organic carbon (TOC) and 73% of CBZ were removed. The process was also tested as tertiary treatment for a municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent, and CBZ was completely removed.