Supplementation of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids for Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, 12-Week, Placebo-Controlled Trial in Korea.Ann Nutr Metab. 2015; 66(2-3):141-148.AN
Controversy over the efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in depression continues to this day. The present study investigated the hypothesis that n-3 PUFA supplementation reduces depressive symptoms in Korean patients with major depressive disorder.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week, parallel-group trial, 35 patients with Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale Korean version (CES-D-K) scores ≥25 and depression confirmed by a psychiatrist were assigned to take either 3 capsules of n-3 PUFAs (1,140 mg of EPA + 600 mg of DHA; n = 18) or placebo (olive oil + safflower oil; n = 17).
Supplementation with n-3 PUFAs significantly reduced Clinical Global Impression Improvement (CGI-I) scores as compared with intake of placebo using intention-to-treat analysis with last-observation-carried-forward after adjusting for energy, fat, and fish intake. However, the CES-D-K, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17, and Clinical Global Impression Scale scores did not significantly differ between the n-3 PUFA and placebo groups. After supplementation with n-3 PUFAs, the erythrocyte levels of n-3 PUFAs were significantly increased, but n-6 PUFA levels were decreased.
n-3 PUFAs demonstrated an advantage over placebo that did not reach clinical significance, although CGI-I score was significantly decreased in the n-3 PUFA group as compared with the placebo group.