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Circulatory endotoxin concentration and cytokine profile in response to exertional-heat stress during a multi-stage ultra-marathon competition.
Exerc Immunol Rev. 2015; 21:114-28.EI

Abstract

Exertional-heat stress has the potential to disturb intestinal integrity, leading to enhanced permeability of enteric pathogenic micro-organisms and associated clinical manifestations. The study aimed to determine the circulatory endotoxin concentration and cytokine profile of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n=19) and a control group (CON, n=12) during a five stage 230km ultra-marathon (mean ± SD: 27h38min ± 3h55min) conducted in hot and dry environmental conditions (30ºC to 40ºC and 31% to 40% relative humidity). Body mass and tympanic temperature were measured, and venous blood samples were taken before (pre-stage) and immediately after (post-stage) each stage of the ultra-marathon for the analysis of gram-negative bacterial endotoxin, C-reactive protein, cytokine profile (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL- 1ra), and plasma osmolality. Gastrointestinal symptoms and perceptive thermal tolerance rating were also monitored throughout competition. Mean exercise-induced body mass loss over the five stages ranged 1.0% to 2.5%. Pre- and poststage plasma osmolality in UER ranged277 to 282mOsmol/kg and 286 to 297 mOsmol/kg, respectively. Pre-stage concentrations of endotoxin (peak: 21% at Stage 5), C-reactive protein (889% at Stage 3), IL-6 (152% at Stage 2), IL-1β (95% at Stage 5), TNF-α (168% at Stage 5), IFN-γ (102% at Stage 5),IL-10 (1271% at Stage 3), and IL-1ra (106% at Stage 5) increased as the ultra-marathon progressed in UER; while no changes in CON were observed (except for IL-1β, 71% at Stage 5). Pre- to post-stage increases were observed for endotoxin (peak: 22% at Stage 3), C-reactive protein (25% at Stage 1), IL-6 (238% at Stage 1), IL-1β (64% at Stage 1), TNF-α (101% at Stage 1), IFN-γ (39% at Stage 1), IL-10 (1100% at Stage 1), and IL-1ra(207% at Stage 1) concentrations in UER. Multi-stage ultra-marathon competition in the heat resulted in a modest circulatory endotoxaemia accompanied by a pronounced pro-inflammatory cytokinaemia by post-Stage 1, both of which were sustained throughout competition at rest (pre-stage) and after stage completion. Compensatory anti-inflammatory responses and other external factors (i.e., training status, cooling strategies, heat acclimatization, nutrition and hydration) may have contributed towards limiting the extent of pro-inflammatory responses in the current scenario.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Sport & Exercise Science Applied Research Group, Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB, United Kingdom.Faculty of Sport Science & Physical Education, Pavilion 3, Santa Clara, 3040-156, Coimbra University, Portugal.Faculty of Sport Science & Physical Education, Pavilion 3, Santa Clara, 3040-156, Coimbra University, Portugal.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação Física, Universidade Católica de Brasília, DF, Brasil.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação Física, Universidade Católica de Brasília, DF, Brasil.Sport & Exercise Science Applied Research Group, Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB, United Kingdom.British Forces Germany Health Services, Paderborn, BFPO 16, Germany.Sport & Exercise Science Applied Research Group, Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB, United Kingdom.Faculty of Health & Life Sciences, Northumberland University, Ellison Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, United Kingdom. Department of Physiological Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, 7602, South Africa.Sport & Exercise Science Applied Research Group, Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB, United Kingdom. Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Monash University, Level 1, 264 Ferntree Gully Road, Notting Hill, Victoria 3168, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25830597

Citation

Gill, Samantha K., et al. "Circulatory Endotoxin Concentration and Cytokine Profile in Response to Exertional-heat Stress During a Multi-stage Ultra-marathon Competition." Exercise Immunology Review, vol. 21, 2015, pp. 114-28.
Gill SK, Teixeira A, Rama L, et al. Circulatory endotoxin concentration and cytokine profile in response to exertional-heat stress during a multi-stage ultra-marathon competition. Exerc Immunol Rev. 2015;21:114-28.
Gill, S. K., Teixeira, A., Rama, L., Prestes, J., Rosado, F., Hankey, J., Scheer, V., Hemmings, K., Ansley-Robson, P., & Costa, R. J. (2015). Circulatory endotoxin concentration and cytokine profile in response to exertional-heat stress during a multi-stage ultra-marathon competition. Exercise Immunology Review, 21, 114-28.
Gill SK, et al. Circulatory Endotoxin Concentration and Cytokine Profile in Response to Exertional-heat Stress During a Multi-stage Ultra-marathon Competition. Exerc Immunol Rev. 2015;21:114-28. PubMed PMID: 25830597.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Circulatory endotoxin concentration and cytokine profile in response to exertional-heat stress during a multi-stage ultra-marathon competition. AU - Gill,Samantha K, AU - Teixeira,Ana, AU - Rama,Luis, AU - Prestes,Jonato, AU - Rosado,Fatima, AU - Hankey,Joanne, AU - Scheer,Volker, AU - Hemmings,Krystal, AU - Ansley-Robson,Paula, AU - Costa,Ricardo J S, PY - 2015/4/2/entrez PY - 2015/4/2/pubmed PY - 2015/5/1/medline KW - endurance KW - gastrointestinal. KW - heat KW - inflammation KW - running SP - 114 EP - 28 JF - Exercise immunology review JO - Exerc Immunol Rev VL - 21 N2 - Exertional-heat stress has the potential to disturb intestinal integrity, leading to enhanced permeability of enteric pathogenic micro-organisms and associated clinical manifestations. The study aimed to determine the circulatory endotoxin concentration and cytokine profile of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n=19) and a control group (CON, n=12) during a five stage 230km ultra-marathon (mean ± SD: 27h38min ± 3h55min) conducted in hot and dry environmental conditions (30ºC to 40ºC and 31% to 40% relative humidity). Body mass and tympanic temperature were measured, and venous blood samples were taken before (pre-stage) and immediately after (post-stage) each stage of the ultra-marathon for the analysis of gram-negative bacterial endotoxin, C-reactive protein, cytokine profile (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL- 1ra), and plasma osmolality. Gastrointestinal symptoms and perceptive thermal tolerance rating were also monitored throughout competition. Mean exercise-induced body mass loss over the five stages ranged 1.0% to 2.5%. Pre- and poststage plasma osmolality in UER ranged277 to 282mOsmol/kg and 286 to 297 mOsmol/kg, respectively. Pre-stage concentrations of endotoxin (peak: 21% at Stage 5), C-reactive protein (889% at Stage 3), IL-6 (152% at Stage 2), IL-1β (95% at Stage 5), TNF-α (168% at Stage 5), IFN-γ (102% at Stage 5),IL-10 (1271% at Stage 3), and IL-1ra (106% at Stage 5) increased as the ultra-marathon progressed in UER; while no changes in CON were observed (except for IL-1β, 71% at Stage 5). Pre- to post-stage increases were observed for endotoxin (peak: 22% at Stage 3), C-reactive protein (25% at Stage 1), IL-6 (238% at Stage 1), IL-1β (64% at Stage 1), TNF-α (101% at Stage 1), IFN-γ (39% at Stage 1), IL-10 (1100% at Stage 1), and IL-1ra(207% at Stage 1) concentrations in UER. Multi-stage ultra-marathon competition in the heat resulted in a modest circulatory endotoxaemia accompanied by a pronounced pro-inflammatory cytokinaemia by post-Stage 1, both of which were sustained throughout competition at rest (pre-stage) and after stage completion. Compensatory anti-inflammatory responses and other external factors (i.e., training status, cooling strategies, heat acclimatization, nutrition and hydration) may have contributed towards limiting the extent of pro-inflammatory responses in the current scenario. SN - 1077-5552 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25830597/Circulatory_endotoxin_concentration_and_cytokine_profile_in_response_to_exertional_heat_stress_during_a_multi_stage_ultra_marathon_competition_ L2 - http://eir-isei.de/2015/eir-2015-114-article.pdf DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -