Associations of dairy intake with glycemia and insulinemia, independent of obesity, in Brazilian adults: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Apr; 101(4):775-82.AJ
Inverse associations between dairy intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes have been shown, but more studies are needed, especially from low- and middle-income countries.
The objective was to describe the association between dairy products and direct measures of glycemic status in adults without known diabetes.
The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) includes 15,105 adults, aged 35-74 y, enrolled from universities and research institutions in 6 Brazilian capital cities. We excluded participants with a known diabetes diagnosis, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Dairy consumption was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire, and we computed servings per day for total and subgroups of dairy. Associations with fasting blood glucose (FG) and fasting insulin, 2-h postload glucose (PG), 2-h postload insulin (PI), glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were assessed through multivariable linear regression analysis with adjustment for demographic characteristics, behavioral risk factors, other dietary factors, and anthropometric measurements.
The sample size after exclusions was 10,010. The intake of total dairy was inversely associated with FG (linear β for dairy servings/d = -0.46 ± 0.2 mg/dL), PG (-1.25 ± 0.5 mg/dL), PI (-1.52 ± 0.6 mg/dL), Hb A1c (-0.02 ± 0.0%), and HOMA-IR (-0.04 ± 0.0) after adjustment for all covariates (P < 0.05 for all). The findings were consistent across categories of sex, race, obesity status, and dairy fat amount (reduced-fat vs. full-fat dairy). Fermented dairy products showed particularly strong inverse associations with the outcomes, with adjusted differences for a 1-serving/d increment of -0.24 (95% CI: -0.46, -0.02) mg/dL for FG, -0.86 (-1.42, -0.30) mg/dL for PG, and -0.01% (-0.02%, 0.00%) for Hb A1c. Myristic acid was the only nutrient that appeared to mediate the association between dairy intake and glycemia.
Dairy intake, especially fermented dairy, was inversely associated with measures of glycemia and insulinemia in Brazilian adults without diagnosed diabetes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.com as NCT02320461.