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A review of potential metabolic etiologies of the observed association between red meat consumption and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Abstract

Epidemiological studies suggest that red and processed meat consumption is related to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, it is not clearly understood which components of red and processed meat contribute to this increased risk. This review examines potential mechanisms addressing the role of saturated fatty acid, sodium, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), nitrates/nitrites, heme iron, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), branched amino acids (BCAAs) and endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) in the development of type 2 diabetes based on data from published clinical trials and animal models. TMAO which is derived from dietary carnitine and choline by the action of bacterial enzymes followed by oxidation in the liver may be a strong candidate molecule mediating the risk of type 2 diabetes. BCAAs may induce insulin resistance via the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase β 1 (S6k1)-associated pathways. The increased risk associated with processed meat compared with red meat suggests that there are interactions between the saturated fat, salt, and nitrates in processed meat and iron, AGEs and TMAO. Intervention studies are required to clarify potential mechanisms and explore interactions among components, in order to make firm recommendations on red and processed meat consumption.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    School of Pharmacy and Medical Science, University of South Australia, Australia.

    ,

    School of Pharmacy and Medical Science, University of South Australia, Australia.

    School of Pharmacy and Medical Science, University of South Australia, Australia. Electronic address: Peter.Clifton@unisa.edu.au.

    Source

    MeSH

    Animals
    Clinical Trials as Topic
    Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
    Diet
    Humans
    Meat
    Risk

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    25838035

    Citation

    Kim, Yoona, et al. "A Review of Potential Metabolic Etiologies of the Observed Association Between Red Meat Consumption and Development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus." Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 64, no. 7, 2015, pp. 768-79.
    Kim Y, Keogh J, Clifton P. A review of potential metabolic etiologies of the observed association between red meat consumption and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metab Clin Exp. 2015;64(7):768-79.
    Kim, Y., Keogh, J., & Clifton, P. (2015). A review of potential metabolic etiologies of the observed association between red meat consumption and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, 64(7), pp. 768-79. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2015.03.008.
    Kim Y, Keogh J, Clifton P. A Review of Potential Metabolic Etiologies of the Observed Association Between Red Meat Consumption and Development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Metab Clin Exp. 2015;64(7):768-79. PubMed PMID: 25838035.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - A review of potential metabolic etiologies of the observed association between red meat consumption and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. AU - Kim,Yoona, AU - Keogh,Jennifer, AU - Clifton,Peter, Y1 - 2015/03/19/ PY - 2014/12/03/received PY - 2015/03/02/revised PY - 2015/03/15/accepted PY - 2015/4/4/entrez PY - 2015/4/4/pubmed PY - 2015/8/8/medline KW - Advanced glycation end products KW - Insulin resistance KW - Insulin sensitivity KW - Red and processed meat KW - Trimethylamine N-oxide SP - 768 EP - 79 JF - Metabolism: clinical and experimental JO - Metab. Clin. Exp. VL - 64 IS - 7 N2 - Epidemiological studies suggest that red and processed meat consumption is related to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, it is not clearly understood which components of red and processed meat contribute to this increased risk. This review examines potential mechanisms addressing the role of saturated fatty acid, sodium, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), nitrates/nitrites, heme iron, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), branched amino acids (BCAAs) and endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) in the development of type 2 diabetes based on data from published clinical trials and animal models. TMAO which is derived from dietary carnitine and choline by the action of bacterial enzymes followed by oxidation in the liver may be a strong candidate molecule mediating the risk of type 2 diabetes. BCAAs may induce insulin resistance via the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase β 1 (S6k1)-associated pathways. The increased risk associated with processed meat compared with red meat suggests that there are interactions between the saturated fat, salt, and nitrates in processed meat and iron, AGEs and TMAO. Intervention studies are required to clarify potential mechanisms and explore interactions among components, in order to make firm recommendations on red and processed meat consumption. SN - 1532-8600 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25838035/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0026-0495(15)00086-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -