Treatment escalation options for patients with type 2 diabetes after failure of exenatide twice daily or glimepiride added to metformin: results from the prospective European Exenatide (EUREXA) study.Diabetes Obes Metab. 2015 Jul; 17(7):689-98.DO
To evaluate third-line thiazolidinedione (TZD) or glimepiride therapy in patients inadequately controlled on metformin + exenatide twice daily, and third-line exenatide twice daily in patients inadequately controlled on metformin + glimepiride.
In this randomized, open-label, multicentre trial, 144 patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled [glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) >9% (75 mmol/mol) after 3 months' treatment or >7% (53 mmol/mol) at two consecutive visits 3 months apart, after 6 months' treatment] on metformin + exenatide twice daily were re-randomized to add-on TZD or glimepiride, and 166 patients inadequately controlled on metformin + glimepiride received add-on exenatide twice daily. Changes in HbA1c, body mass index (BMI), lipids, hypoglycaemia and vital signs were evaluated.
The median duration of triple therapy was ∼2 years. In patients inadequately controlled on metformin + exenatide twice daily, add-on TZD decreased HbA1c levels significantly better than add-on glimepiride: 130-week difference 0.48% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19-0.77] or 5.2 mmol/mol (95% CI 2.1-8.4; p = 0.001), but with significantly increased BMI and systolic blood pressure. The ratio of documented symptomatic (blood glucose ≤70 mg/dl [3.9 mmol/l]) hypoglycaemia rates for add-on glimepiride to add-on TZD was 8.48 (p < 0.0001). Add-on exenatide twice daily after metformin + glimepiride significantly reduced HbA1c levels: mean [standard deviation (s.d.)] change from baseline -0.35 (0.89)% [-3.8 (9.7) mmol/mol] and BMI: mean (s.d.) change from baseline -0.82 (1.9) kg/m(2) at 130 weeks, with a slightly increased rate of documented symptomatic hypoglycaemia from metformin + glimepiride (ratio 1.49).
TZD, but not glimepiride, was an effective and well tolerated third-line therapy in patients without glycaemic control after long-term therapy with metformin + exenatide twice daily. Exenatide twice daily was an effective and well tolerated third-line therapy in patients inadequately controlled on metformin + glimepiride.