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High sodium and low potassium intake among Italian children: relationship with age, body mass and blood pressure.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(4):e0121183.Plos

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Hypertension is the leading cause of death in developed countries and reduction of salt intake is recommended as a key preventive measure.

OBJECTIVE

To assess the dietary sodium and potassium intakes in a national sample of Italian children and adolescents and to examine their relationships with BMI and blood pressure (BP) in the framework of the MINISAL survey, a program supported by the Italian Ministry of Health.

POPULATION AND METHODS

The study population included 1424 healthy subjects (766 boys, 658 girls) aged 6-18 years (mean age: 10.1±2.9) who were consecutively recruited in participating National Health Service centers in 10 Italian regions. Electrolyte intake was estimated from 24 hour urine collections tested for completeness by the concomitant measurement of creatinine content. Anthropometric indices and BP were measured with standardized procedures.

RESULTS

The average estimated sodium intake was 129 mmol (7.4 g of salt) per day among boys and 117 mmol (6.7 g of salt) among girls. Ninety-three percent of the boys and 89% of the girls had a consumption higher than the recommended age-specific standard dietary target. The estimated average daily potassium intakes were 39 mmol (1.53 g) and 36 mmol (1.40 g), respectively, over 96% of the boys and 98% of the girls having a potassium intake lower than the recommended adequate intake. The mean sodium/potassium ratio was similar among boys and girls (3.5 and 3.4, respectively) and over 3-fold greater than the desirable level. Sodium intake was directly related to age, body mass and BP in the whole population.

CONCLUSIONS

The Italian pediatric population is characterized by excessive sodium and deficient potassium intake. These data suggest that future campaigns should focus on children and adolescents as a major target in the framework of a population strategy of cardiovascular prevention.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Pediatrics, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University of Naples Medical School, ESH Excellence Centre of Hypertension, Naples, Italy.Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University of Naples Medical School, ESH Excellence Centre of Hypertension, Naples, Italy.Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University of Naples Medical School, ESH Excellence Centre of Hypertension, Naples, Italy.Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University of Naples Medical School, ESH Excellence Centre of Hypertension, Naples, Italy.Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University of Naples Medical School, ESH Excellence Centre of Hypertension, Naples, Italy; Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie Pédiatrique, Hôpital Bicêtre, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.Pediatrics, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.Pediatrics, University Magna Graecia, Catanzaro, Italy.Pediatrics Hospital of Cava dei tirreni (SA), Italy.Pediatrics, ASL-Naples, Italy.Pediatrics, ASL-Naples, Italy.Pediatrics, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, Bari, Italy.Pediatrics, Santo Spirito Hospital, Pescara, Italy.Pediatrics, University of Marche, Ancona, Italy.Pediatrics, ASL Umbria, Perugia, Italy.Pediatrics, ASL Umbria, Perugia, Italy.Pediatrics, University of Modena, Modena, Italy.Pediatrics, University of Torino, Italy.Pediatrics, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.Pediatrics, ASL-Roma, Rome, Italy.Epidemiology & Population Genetics, Institute of Food Science & Technology, National Research Council, Avellino, Italy (AS).Italian Ministry of Health, Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Rome, Italy.Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University of Naples Medical School, ESH Excellence Centre of Hypertension, Naples, Italy.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25853242

Citation

Campanozzi, Angelo, et al. "High Sodium and Low Potassium Intake Among Italian Children: Relationship With Age, Body Mass and Blood Pressure." PloS One, vol. 10, no. 4, 2015, pp. e0121183.
Campanozzi A, Avallone S, Barbato A, et al. High sodium and low potassium intake among Italian children: relationship with age, body mass and blood pressure. PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0121183.
Campanozzi, A., Avallone, S., Barbato, A., Iacone, R., Russo, O., De Filippo, G., D'Angelo, G., Pensabene, L., Malamisura, B., Cecere, G., Micillo, M., Francavilla, R., Tetro, A., Lombardi, G., Tonelli, L., Castellucci, G., Ferraro, L., Di Biase, R., Lezo, A., ... Strazzullo, P. (2015). High sodium and low potassium intake among Italian children: relationship with age, body mass and blood pressure. PloS One, 10(4), e0121183. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121183
Campanozzi A, et al. High Sodium and Low Potassium Intake Among Italian Children: Relationship With Age, Body Mass and Blood Pressure. PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0121183. PubMed PMID: 25853242.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - High sodium and low potassium intake among Italian children: relationship with age, body mass and blood pressure. AU - Campanozzi,Angelo, AU - Avallone,Sonia, AU - Barbato,Antonio, AU - Iacone,Roberto, AU - Russo,Ornella, AU - De Filippo,Gianpaolo, AU - D'Angelo,Giuseppina, AU - Pensabene,Licia, AU - Malamisura,Basilio, AU - Cecere,Gaetano, AU - Micillo,Maria, AU - Francavilla,Ruggiero, AU - Tetro,Anna, AU - Lombardi,Giuliano, AU - Tonelli,Lisa, AU - Castellucci,Giuseppe, AU - Ferraro,Luigi, AU - Di Biase,Rita, AU - Lezo,Antonella, AU - Salvatore,Silvia, AU - Paoletti,Silvia, AU - Siani,Alfonso, AU - Galeone,Daniela, AU - Strazzullo,Pasquale, AU - ,, Y1 - 2015/04/08/ PY - 2014/08/20/received PY - 2015/01/28/accepted PY - 2015/4/9/entrez PY - 2015/4/9/pubmed PY - 2016/4/15/medline SP - e0121183 EP - e0121183 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS One VL - 10 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the leading cause of death in developed countries and reduction of salt intake is recommended as a key preventive measure. OBJECTIVE: To assess the dietary sodium and potassium intakes in a national sample of Italian children and adolescents and to examine their relationships with BMI and blood pressure (BP) in the framework of the MINISAL survey, a program supported by the Italian Ministry of Health. POPULATION AND METHODS: The study population included 1424 healthy subjects (766 boys, 658 girls) aged 6-18 years (mean age: 10.1±2.9) who were consecutively recruited in participating National Health Service centers in 10 Italian regions. Electrolyte intake was estimated from 24 hour urine collections tested for completeness by the concomitant measurement of creatinine content. Anthropometric indices and BP were measured with standardized procedures. RESULTS: The average estimated sodium intake was 129 mmol (7.4 g of salt) per day among boys and 117 mmol (6.7 g of salt) among girls. Ninety-three percent of the boys and 89% of the girls had a consumption higher than the recommended age-specific standard dietary target. The estimated average daily potassium intakes were 39 mmol (1.53 g) and 36 mmol (1.40 g), respectively, over 96% of the boys and 98% of the girls having a potassium intake lower than the recommended adequate intake. The mean sodium/potassium ratio was similar among boys and girls (3.5 and 3.4, respectively) and over 3-fold greater than the desirable level. Sodium intake was directly related to age, body mass and BP in the whole population. CONCLUSIONS: The Italian pediatric population is characterized by excessive sodium and deficient potassium intake. These data suggest that future campaigns should focus on children and adolescents as a major target in the framework of a population strategy of cardiovascular prevention. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25853242/High_sodium_and_low_potassium_intake_among_Italian_children:_relationship_with_age_body_mass_and_blood_pressure_ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121183 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -