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Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.
Vaccine. 2015 Jun 19; 33 Suppl 3:C55-61.V

Abstract

Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Global Immunization Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA 30329-4027, USA. Electronic address: KDate@cdc.gov.Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals (IVB), World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland.International Vaccine Institute, Kwanak PO Box 14, Seoul 151-600, Republic of Korea.World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific, United Nations Avenue, 1000 Manila, Philippines.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25902360

Citation

Date, Kashmira A., et al. "Typhoid Fever Vaccination Strategies." Vaccine, vol. 33 Suppl 3, 2015, pp. C55-61.
Date KA, Bentsi-Enchill A, Marks F, et al. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies. Vaccine. 2015;33 Suppl 3:C55-61.
Date, K. A., Bentsi-Enchill, A., Marks, F., & Fox, K. (2015). Typhoid fever vaccination strategies. Vaccine, 33 Suppl 3, C55-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.04.028
Date KA, et al. Typhoid Fever Vaccination Strategies. Vaccine. 2015 Jun 19;33 Suppl 3:C55-61. PubMed PMID: 25902360.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Typhoid fever vaccination strategies. AU - Date,Kashmira A, AU - Bentsi-Enchill,Adwoa, AU - Marks,Florian, AU - Fox,Kimberley, Y1 - 2015/04/19/ PY - 2015/02/20/received PY - 2015/03/31/revised PY - 2015/04/01/accepted PY - 2015/4/23/entrez PY - 2015/4/23/pubmed PY - 2016/3/24/medline KW - Outbreak vaccination KW - Routine vaccination KW - School-based vaccination KW - Typhoid fever KW - Typhoid vaccine KW - Vaccination strategies SP - C55 EP - 61 JF - Vaccine JO - Vaccine VL - 33 Suppl 3 N2 - Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. SN - 1873-2518 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25902360/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264-410X(15)00481-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -