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Dietary patterns are associated with metabolic risk factors in South Asians living in the United States.
J Nutr. 2015 Jun; 145(6):1211-7.JN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

South Asians are at high risk of metabolic syndrome, and dietary patterns may influence this risk.

OBJECTIVES

We aimed to determine prevalent dietary patterns for South Asians in the United States and their associations with risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

METHODS

South Asians aged 40-84 y without known cardiovascular disease were enrolled in a community-based cohort called Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America. A validated food frequency questionnaire and serum samples for fasting and 2-h glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides, and total and HDL cholesterol were collected cross-sectionally. We used principal component analysis with varimax rotation to determine dietary patterns, and sequential linear and logistic regression models for associations with metabolic factors.

RESULTS

A total of 892 participants were included (47% women). We identified 3 major dietary patterns: animal protein; fried snacks, sweets, and high-fat dairy; and fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes. These were analyzed by tertile of factor score. The highest vs. the lowest tertile of the fried snacks, sweets, and high-fat dairy pattern was associated with higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (β: 1.88 mmol/L ⋅ uIU/L) and lower HDL cholesterol (β: -4.48 mg/dL) in a model adjusted for age, sex, study site, and caloric intake (P < 0.05). The animal protein pattern was associated with higher body mass index (β: 0.73 m/kg(2)), waist circumference (β: 0.84 cm), total cholesterol (β: 8.16 mg/dL), and LDL cholesterol (β: 5.69 mg/dL) (all P < 0.05). The fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes pattern was associated with lower odds of hypertension (OR: 0.63) and metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.53), and lower HOMA-IR (β: 1.95 mmol/L ⋅ uIU/L) (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

The animal protein and the fried snacks, sweets, and high-fat dairy patterns were associated with adverse metabolic risk factors in South Asians in the United States, whereas the fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes pattern was linked with a decreased prevalence of hypertension and metabolic syndrome.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; meghana.gadgil@ucsf.edu.Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA; and.Division of General Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL.Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA;

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25904730

Citation

Gadgil, Meghana D., et al. "Dietary Patterns Are Associated With Metabolic Risk Factors in South Asians Living in the United States." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 145, no. 6, 2015, pp. 1211-7.
Gadgil MD, Anderson CA, Kandula NR, et al. Dietary patterns are associated with metabolic risk factors in South Asians living in the United States. J Nutr. 2015;145(6):1211-7.
Gadgil, M. D., Anderson, C. A., Kandula, N. R., & Kanaya, A. M. (2015). Dietary patterns are associated with metabolic risk factors in South Asians living in the United States. The Journal of Nutrition, 145(6), 1211-7. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.114.207753
Gadgil MD, et al. Dietary Patterns Are Associated With Metabolic Risk Factors in South Asians Living in the United States. J Nutr. 2015;145(6):1211-7. PubMed PMID: 25904730.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary patterns are associated with metabolic risk factors in South Asians living in the United States. AU - Gadgil,Meghana D, AU - Anderson,Cheryl A M, AU - Kandula,Namratha R, AU - Kanaya,Alka M, Y1 - 2015/04/22/ PY - 2014/12/01/received PY - 2015/03/23/accepted PY - 2015/4/24/entrez PY - 2015/4/24/pubmed PY - 2015/8/14/medline KW - South Asian KW - atherosclerosis KW - diabetes KW - dietary patterns KW - metabolic syndrome SP - 1211 EP - 7 JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J. Nutr. VL - 145 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: South Asians are at high risk of metabolic syndrome, and dietary patterns may influence this risk. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine prevalent dietary patterns for South Asians in the United States and their associations with risk factors for metabolic syndrome. METHODS: South Asians aged 40-84 y without known cardiovascular disease were enrolled in a community-based cohort called Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America. A validated food frequency questionnaire and serum samples for fasting and 2-h glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides, and total and HDL cholesterol were collected cross-sectionally. We used principal component analysis with varimax rotation to determine dietary patterns, and sequential linear and logistic regression models for associations with metabolic factors. RESULTS: A total of 892 participants were included (47% women). We identified 3 major dietary patterns: animal protein; fried snacks, sweets, and high-fat dairy; and fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes. These were analyzed by tertile of factor score. The highest vs. the lowest tertile of the fried snacks, sweets, and high-fat dairy pattern was associated with higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (β: 1.88 mmol/L ⋅ uIU/L) and lower HDL cholesterol (β: -4.48 mg/dL) in a model adjusted for age, sex, study site, and caloric intake (P < 0.05). The animal protein pattern was associated with higher body mass index (β: 0.73 m/kg(2)), waist circumference (β: 0.84 cm), total cholesterol (β: 8.16 mg/dL), and LDL cholesterol (β: 5.69 mg/dL) (all P < 0.05). The fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes pattern was associated with lower odds of hypertension (OR: 0.63) and metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.53), and lower HOMA-IR (β: 1.95 mmol/L ⋅ uIU/L) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The animal protein and the fried snacks, sweets, and high-fat dairy patterns were associated with adverse metabolic risk factors in South Asians in the United States, whereas the fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes pattern was linked with a decreased prevalence of hypertension and metabolic syndrome. SN - 1541-6100 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25904730/Dietary_patterns_are_associated_with_metabolic_risk_factors_in_South_Asians_living_in_the_United_States_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/jn.114.207753 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -