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Exposure to Elemental Carbon, Organic Carbon, Nitrate, and Sulfate Fractions of Fine Particulate Matter and Risk of Preterm Birth in New Jersey, Ohio, and Pennsylvania (2000-2005).
Environ Health Perspect. 2015 Oct; 123(10):1059-65.EH

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) has been consistently associated with preterm birth (PTB) to varying degrees, but roles of PM2.5 species have been less studied.

OBJECTIVE

We estimated risk differences (RD) of PTB (reported per 106 pregnancies) associated with change in ambient concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), nitrates (NO3), and sulfates (SO4).

METHODS

From live birth certificates from three states, we constructed a cohort of singleton pregnancies at or beyond 20 weeks of gestation from 2000 through 2005 (n = 1,771,225; 8% PTB). We estimated mean species exposures for each week of gestation from monitor-corrected Community Multi-Scale Air Quality modeling data. RDs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for four PTB categories were estimated for each exposure using linear regression, adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, marital status, education, age, smoking, maximum temperature, ozone, and season of conception. We also adjusted for other species in multi-species models.

RESULTS

RDs varied by exposure window and outcome period. EC was positively associated with PTB after 27 and before 35 weeks of gestation. For example, for a 0.25-μg/m(3) increase in EC exposure during gestational week 9, RD = 96 (95% CI: -20, 213) and RD = 145 (95% CI: -50, 341) for PTB during weeks 28-31 and 32-34, respectively. Associations with OCs were null or negative. RDs for NO3 were elevated with exposure in early weeks of gestation, and null in later weeks. RDs for SO4 exposure were positively associated with PTB, though magnitude varied across gestational weeks. We observed effect measure modification for associations between EC and PTB by race/ethnicity and smoking status.

CONCLUSION

EC and SO4 may contribute to associations between PM2.5 and PTB. Associations varied according to the timing of exposure and the timing of PTB.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Epidemiology, UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25910280

Citation

Rappazzo, Kristen M., et al. "Exposure to Elemental Carbon, Organic Carbon, Nitrate, and Sulfate Fractions of Fine Particulate Matter and Risk of Preterm Birth in New Jersey, Ohio, and Pennsylvania (2000-2005)." Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 123, no. 10, 2015, pp. 1059-65.
Rappazzo KM, Daniels JL, Messer LC, et al. Exposure to Elemental Carbon, Organic Carbon, Nitrate, and Sulfate Fractions of Fine Particulate Matter and Risk of Preterm Birth in New Jersey, Ohio, and Pennsylvania (2000-2005). Environ Health Perspect. 2015;123(10):1059-65.
Rappazzo, K. M., Daniels, J. L., Messer, L. C., Poole, C., & Lobdell, D. T. (2015). Exposure to Elemental Carbon, Organic Carbon, Nitrate, and Sulfate Fractions of Fine Particulate Matter and Risk of Preterm Birth in New Jersey, Ohio, and Pennsylvania (2000-2005). Environmental Health Perspectives, 123(10), 1059-65. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408953
Rappazzo KM, et al. Exposure to Elemental Carbon, Organic Carbon, Nitrate, and Sulfate Fractions of Fine Particulate Matter and Risk of Preterm Birth in New Jersey, Ohio, and Pennsylvania (2000-2005). Environ Health Perspect. 2015;123(10):1059-65. PubMed PMID: 25910280.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Exposure to Elemental Carbon, Organic Carbon, Nitrate, and Sulfate Fractions of Fine Particulate Matter and Risk of Preterm Birth in New Jersey, Ohio, and Pennsylvania (2000-2005). AU - Rappazzo,Kristen M, AU - Daniels,Julie L, AU - Messer,Lynne C, AU - Poole,Charles, AU - Lobdell,Danelle T, Y1 - 2015/04/24/ PY - 2014/07/14/received PY - 2015/04/22/accepted PY - 2015/4/25/entrez PY - 2015/4/25/pubmed PY - 2016/7/14/medline SP - 1059 EP - 65 JF - Environmental health perspectives JO - Environ. Health Perspect. VL - 123 IS - 10 N2 - BACKGROUND: Particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) has been consistently associated with preterm birth (PTB) to varying degrees, but roles of PM2.5 species have been less studied. OBJECTIVE: We estimated risk differences (RD) of PTB (reported per 106 pregnancies) associated with change in ambient concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), nitrates (NO3), and sulfates (SO4). METHODS: From live birth certificates from three states, we constructed a cohort of singleton pregnancies at or beyond 20 weeks of gestation from 2000 through 2005 (n = 1,771,225; 8% PTB). We estimated mean species exposures for each week of gestation from monitor-corrected Community Multi-Scale Air Quality modeling data. RDs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for four PTB categories were estimated for each exposure using linear regression, adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, marital status, education, age, smoking, maximum temperature, ozone, and season of conception. We also adjusted for other species in multi-species models. RESULTS: RDs varied by exposure window and outcome period. EC was positively associated with PTB after 27 and before 35 weeks of gestation. For example, for a 0.25-μg/m(3) increase in EC exposure during gestational week 9, RD = 96 (95% CI: -20, 213) and RD = 145 (95% CI: -50, 341) for PTB during weeks 28-31 and 32-34, respectively. Associations with OCs were null or negative. RDs for NO3 were elevated with exposure in early weeks of gestation, and null in later weeks. RDs for SO4 exposure were positively associated with PTB, though magnitude varied across gestational weeks. We observed effect measure modification for associations between EC and PTB by race/ethnicity and smoking status. CONCLUSION: EC and SO4 may contribute to associations between PM2.5 and PTB. Associations varied according to the timing of exposure and the timing of PTB. SN - 1552-9924 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25910280/Exposure_to_Elemental_Carbon_Organic_Carbon_Nitrate_and_Sulfate_Fractions_of_Fine_Particulate_Matter_and_Risk_of_Preterm_Birth_in_New_Jersey_Ohio_and_Pennsylvania__2000_2005__ L2 - https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/doi/full/10.1289/ehp.1408953?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -