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Longitudinal effects of dietary sodium and potassium on blood pressure in adolescent girls.

Abstract

IMPORTANCE

Identification of risk factors early in life for the development of high blood pressure is critical to the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

OBJECTIVE

To study prospectively the effect of dietary sodium, potassium, and the potassium to sodium ratio on adolescent blood pressure.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Growth and Health Study is a prospective cohort study with sites in Richmond, California; Cincinnati, Ohio; and Washington, DC. Participants included 2185 black and white girls initially aged 9 to 10 years with complete data for early-adolescent to midadolescent diet and blood pressure who were followed up for 10 years. The first examination visits were from March 1987 through February 1988 and follow-up continued until February 1999. Longitudinal mixed models and analysis of covariance models were used to assess the effect of dietary sodium, potassium, and the potassium to sodium ratio on systolic and diastolic blood pressures throughout adolescence and after 10 years of follow-up, adjusting for race, height, activity, television/video time, energy intake, and other dietary factors.

EXPOSURES

Mean dietary sodium and potassium intakes and the mean potassium to sodium ratio in individuals aged 9 to 17 years. To eliminate potential confounding by energy intake, energy-adjusted sodium and potassium residuals were estimated.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES

Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures throughout adolescence and at the end of follow-up (individuals aged 17-21 years).

RESULTS

Sodium intakes were classified as less than 2500 mg/d (19.4% of participants), 2500 mg/d to less than 3000 mg/d (29.5%), 3000 mg/d to less than 4000 mg/d (41.4%), and 4000 mg/d or more (9.7%). Potassium intakes ranged from less than 1800 mg/d (36.0% of participants) to 1800 mg/d to less than 2100 mg/d (26.2%), 2100 mg/d to less than 2400 mg/d (18.8%), and 2400 mg/d or more (19.0%). There was no evidence that higher sodium intakes (3000 to <4000 mg/d and ≥4000 mg/d vs <2500 mg/d) had an adverse effect on adolescent blood pressure and longitudinal mixed models showed that those consuming 3500 mg/d or more had generally lower diastolic blood pressures compared with individuals consuming less than 2500 mg/d (P = .18). However, higher potassium intakes were inversely associated with blood pressure change throughout adolescence (P < .001 for systolic and diastolic) and at the end of follow-up (P = .02 and P = .05 for systolic and diastolic, respectively). While the potassium to sodium ratio was also inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (P = .04), these effects were generally weaker compared with effects for potassium alone.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE

In this study of adolescent girls, consumption of 3500 mg/d of sodium or more had no adverse effect on blood pressure. The beneficial effects of dietary potassium on both systolic and diastolic blood pressures suggest that consuming more potassium-rich foods during childhood may help suppress the adolescent increase in blood pressure.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

    ,

    Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

    ,

    Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora3The Children's Hospital, Aurora, Colorado.

    ,

    Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

    Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

    Source

    JAMA pediatrics 169:6 2015 Jun pg 560-8

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Blood Pressure
    Child
    Female
    Humans
    Hypertension
    Longitudinal Studies
    Potassium, Dietary
    Sodium, Dietary

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    25915457

    Citation

    Buendia, Justin R., et al. "Longitudinal Effects of Dietary Sodium and Potassium On Blood Pressure in Adolescent Girls." JAMA Pediatrics, vol. 169, no. 6, 2015, pp. 560-8.
    Buendia JR, Bradlee ML, Daniels SR, et al. Longitudinal effects of dietary sodium and potassium on blood pressure in adolescent girls. JAMA Pediatr. 2015;169(6):560-8.
    Buendia, J. R., Bradlee, M. L., Daniels, S. R., Singer, M. R., & Moore, L. L. (2015). Longitudinal effects of dietary sodium and potassium on blood pressure in adolescent girls. JAMA Pediatrics, 169(6), pp. 560-8. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.0411.
    Buendia JR, et al. Longitudinal Effects of Dietary Sodium and Potassium On Blood Pressure in Adolescent Girls. JAMA Pediatr. 2015;169(6):560-8. PubMed PMID: 25915457.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Longitudinal effects of dietary sodium and potassium on blood pressure in adolescent girls. AU - Buendia,Justin R, AU - Bradlee,M Loring, AU - Daniels,Stephen R, AU - Singer,Martha R, AU - Moore,Lynn L, PY - 2015/4/28/entrez PY - 2015/4/29/pubmed PY - 2015/8/20/medline SP - 560 EP - 8 JF - JAMA pediatrics JO - JAMA Pediatr VL - 169 IS - 6 N2 - IMPORTANCE: Identification of risk factors early in life for the development of high blood pressure is critical to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To study prospectively the effect of dietary sodium, potassium, and the potassium to sodium ratio on adolescent blood pressure. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Growth and Health Study is a prospective cohort study with sites in Richmond, California; Cincinnati, Ohio; and Washington, DC. Participants included 2185 black and white girls initially aged 9 to 10 years with complete data for early-adolescent to midadolescent diet and blood pressure who were followed up for 10 years. The first examination visits were from March 1987 through February 1988 and follow-up continued until February 1999. Longitudinal mixed models and analysis of covariance models were used to assess the effect of dietary sodium, potassium, and the potassium to sodium ratio on systolic and diastolic blood pressures throughout adolescence and after 10 years of follow-up, adjusting for race, height, activity, television/video time, energy intake, and other dietary factors. EXPOSURES: Mean dietary sodium and potassium intakes and the mean potassium to sodium ratio in individuals aged 9 to 17 years. To eliminate potential confounding by energy intake, energy-adjusted sodium and potassium residuals were estimated. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures throughout adolescence and at the end of follow-up (individuals aged 17-21 years). RESULTS: Sodium intakes were classified as less than 2500 mg/d (19.4% of participants), 2500 mg/d to less than 3000 mg/d (29.5%), 3000 mg/d to less than 4000 mg/d (41.4%), and 4000 mg/d or more (9.7%). Potassium intakes ranged from less than 1800 mg/d (36.0% of participants) to 1800 mg/d to less than 2100 mg/d (26.2%), 2100 mg/d to less than 2400 mg/d (18.8%), and 2400 mg/d or more (19.0%). There was no evidence that higher sodium intakes (3000 to <4000 mg/d and ≥4000 mg/d vs <2500 mg/d) had an adverse effect on adolescent blood pressure and longitudinal mixed models showed that those consuming 3500 mg/d or more had generally lower diastolic blood pressures compared with individuals consuming less than 2500 mg/d (P = .18). However, higher potassium intakes were inversely associated with blood pressure change throughout adolescence (P < .001 for systolic and diastolic) and at the end of follow-up (P = .02 and P = .05 for systolic and diastolic, respectively). While the potassium to sodium ratio was also inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (P = .04), these effects were generally weaker compared with effects for potassium alone. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this study of adolescent girls, consumption of 3500 mg/d of sodium or more had no adverse effect on blood pressure. The beneficial effects of dietary potassium on both systolic and diastolic blood pressures suggest that consuming more potassium-rich foods during childhood may help suppress the adolescent increase in blood pressure. SN - 2168-6211 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25915457/Longitudinal_effects_of_dietary_sodium_and_potassium_on_blood_pressure_in_adolescent_girls_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/fullarticles/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.0411 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -