Unmanipulated Haploidentical Reduced-Intensity Stem Cell Transplantation Using Fludarabine, Busulfan, Low-Dose Antithymocyte Globulin, and Steroids for Patients in Non-Complete Remission or at High Risk of Relapse: A Prospective Multicenter Phase I/II Study in Japan.Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2015 Aug; 21(8):1495-505.BB
This prospective, multicenter phase I/II study of unmanipulated HLA-haploidentical reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation using a low dose of anti-T lymphocyte globulin (ATG) and steroid was conducted in 5 institutions in Japan. Thirty-four patients with hematologic malignancies who were in an advanced stage or at a high risk of relapse at the time of transplantation were enrolled. Among them, 7 patients underwent transplantation as a second transplantation because of relapse after the previous allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The conditioning regimen consisted of fludarabine, busulfan, and ATG (Fresenius, 8 mg/kg), and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of tacrolimus and methylprednisolone (1 mg/kg). All patients except 1 (97.1%) achieved donor-type engraftment. Rapid hematopoietic engraftment was achieved, with neutrophils > .5 × 10(9)/L on day 11 and platelets > 20 × 10(9)/L on day 17.5. Treatment was started for ≥grade I GVHD, and the cumulative incidences of acute grade I and grade II to IV GVHD were 27.5% and 30.7%, respectively. The incidence of chronic GVHD (extensive type) was 20%. Fourteen patients (41.2%) had a relapse. The cumulative incidence of transplantation-related mortality at 1 year after transplantation was 26.5%. The survival rate at day 100 was 88.2%. The survival rates at 1 year for patients with complete remission (CR)/chronic phase (n = 8) and non-CR (n = 26) status before transplantation were 62.5% and 42.3%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, non-CR status before transplantation was the only factor significant prognostic factor of increased relapse (P = .0424), which tended to be associated with a lower survival rate (P = .0524). This transplantation protocol is safe and feasible, if a suitable donor is not available in a timely manner. As the main cause of death was relapse and not GVHD, more intensified conditioning or attenuation of GVHD prophylaxis and/or donor lymphocyte infusion may be desirable for patients with non-CR status.