Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis-a review of current and novel pharmacotherapies.J Thorac Dis 2015; 7(3):499-519JT
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive form of lung disease of unknown etiology for which a paucity of therapies suggest benefit, and for which none have demonstrated improved survival. Acute exacerbation of IPF (AE-IPF) is defined as a sudden acceleration of the disease or an idiopathic acute injury superimposed on diseased lung that leads to a significant decline in lung function. An AE-IPF is associated with a mortality rate as high as 85% with mean survival periods of between 3 to 13 days. Under these circumstances, mechanical ventilation (MV) is controversial, unless used a as a bridge to lung transplantation. Judicious fluid management may be helpful. Pharmaceutical treatment regimens for AE-IPF include the use of high dose corticosteroids with or without immunosuppressive agents such as cyclosporine A (CsA), and broad spectrum antibiotics, despite the lack of convincing evidence demonstrating benefit. Newer research focuses on abnormal wound healing as a cause of fibrosis and preventing fibrosis itself through blocking growth factors and their downstream intra-cellular signaling pathways. Several novel pharmaceutical approaches are discussed.