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Placebo and nocebo effects: a complex interplay between psychological factors and neurochemical networks.
Am J Clin Hypn. 2015 Jan; 57(3):267-84.AJ

Abstract

Placebo and nocebo effects have recently emerged as an interesting model to understand some of the intricate underpinnings of the mind-body interaction. A variety of psychological mechanisms, such as expectation, conditioning, anxiety modulation, and reward, have been identified, and a number of neurochemical networks have been characterized across different conditions, such as pain and motor disorders. What has emerged from the recent insights into the neurobiology of placebo and nocebo effects is that the psychosocial context around the patient and the therapy, which represents the ritual of the therapeutic act, may change the biochemistry and the neuronal circuitry of the patient's brain. Furthermore, the mechanisms activated by placebos and nocebos have been found to be the same as those activated by drugs, which suggests a cognitive/affective interference with drug action. Overall, these findings highlight the important role of therapeutic rituals in the overall therapeutic outcome, including hypnosis, which may have profound implications both in routine medical practice and in the clinical trials setting.

Authors+Show Affiliations

a University of Turin Medical School , Turin , Italy.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25928679

Citation

Frisaldi, Elisa, et al. "Placebo and Nocebo Effects: a Complex Interplay Between Psychological Factors and Neurochemical Networks." The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, vol. 57, no. 3, 2015, pp. 267-84.
Frisaldi E, Piedimonte A, Benedetti F. Placebo and nocebo effects: a complex interplay between psychological factors and neurochemical networks. Am J Clin Hypn. 2015;57(3):267-84.
Frisaldi, E., Piedimonte, A., & Benedetti, F. (2015). Placebo and nocebo effects: a complex interplay between psychological factors and neurochemical networks. The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 57(3), 267-84. https://doi.org/10.1080/00029157.2014.976785
Frisaldi E, Piedimonte A, Benedetti F. Placebo and Nocebo Effects: a Complex Interplay Between Psychological Factors and Neurochemical Networks. Am J Clin Hypn. 2015;57(3):267-84. PubMed PMID: 25928679.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Placebo and nocebo effects: a complex interplay between psychological factors and neurochemical networks. AU - Frisaldi,Elisa, AU - Piedimonte,Alessandro, AU - Benedetti,Fabrizio, PY - 2015/5/1/entrez PY - 2015/5/1/pubmed PY - 2015/10/31/medline KW - anxiety KW - cholecystokinin KW - conditioning KW - dopamine KW - endocannabinoids KW - expectation KW - nocebo KW - opioid system KW - placebo KW - reward SP - 267 EP - 84 JF - The American journal of clinical hypnosis JO - Am J Clin Hypn VL - 57 IS - 3 N2 - Placebo and nocebo effects have recently emerged as an interesting model to understand some of the intricate underpinnings of the mind-body interaction. A variety of psychological mechanisms, such as expectation, conditioning, anxiety modulation, and reward, have been identified, and a number of neurochemical networks have been characterized across different conditions, such as pain and motor disorders. What has emerged from the recent insights into the neurobiology of placebo and nocebo effects is that the psychosocial context around the patient and the therapy, which represents the ritual of the therapeutic act, may change the biochemistry and the neuronal circuitry of the patient's brain. Furthermore, the mechanisms activated by placebos and nocebos have been found to be the same as those activated by drugs, which suggests a cognitive/affective interference with drug action. Overall, these findings highlight the important role of therapeutic rituals in the overall therapeutic outcome, including hypnosis, which may have profound implications both in routine medical practice and in the clinical trials setting. SN - 0002-9157 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25928679/Placebo_and_nocebo_effects:_a_complex_interplay_between_psychological_factors_and_neurochemical_networks_ L2 - http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00029157.2014.976785 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -