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The first application of wastewater-based drug epidemiology in five South Korean cities.
Sci Total Environ 2015; 524-525:440-6ST

Abstract

Illicit drug consumption in five cities in South Korea was estimated by analyzing 17 drug residues in untreated wastewater samples collected during the Christmas and New Year period of 2012-13. Only methamphetamine, amphetamine, and codeine were detected at concentrations of tens of nanograms per liter or even lower concentrations in more than 90% of the samples. Other illicit drug residues (including cocaine, methadone, and benzoylecgonine) that have been detected frequently in wastewater from other countries were not found in this study. Methamphetamine was found to be the most widely used illicit drug in South Korea, and the estimated average consumption rate was 22 mg d(-1) (1000 people)(-1). This rate is, for example, 2-5 times lower than the estimated average consumption rates in Hong Kong and other parts of China and 4-80 times lower than the estimated average consumption rates in cities in Western countries. It should be noted that the wastewater samples analyzed in this study were collected during a holiday season, when daily consumption of illicit drugs is often higher than on an average day. The methamphetamine usage rates were calculated for different cities in South Korea, and the usage rates in smaller cities was higher (2-4 times) than the average.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University Busan 609-735, Republic of Korea.The National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains, Queensland 4108, Australia.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University Busan 609-735, Republic of Korea.The National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains, Queensland 4108, Australia.The National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains, Queensland 4108, Australia. Electronic address: j.mueller@uq.edu.au.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University Busan 609-735, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: jeoh@pusan.ac.kr.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25933175

Citation

Kim, Ki Yong, et al. "The First Application of Wastewater-based Drug Epidemiology in Five South Korean Cities." The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 524-525, 2015, pp. 440-6.
Kim KY, Lai FY, Kim HY, et al. The first application of wastewater-based drug epidemiology in five South Korean cities. Sci Total Environ. 2015;524-525:440-6.
Kim, K. Y., Lai, F. Y., Kim, H. Y., Thai, P. K., Mueller, J. F., & Oh, J. E. (2015). The first application of wastewater-based drug epidemiology in five South Korean cities. The Science of the Total Environment, 524-525, pp. 440-6. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.04.065.
Kim KY, et al. The First Application of Wastewater-based Drug Epidemiology in Five South Korean Cities. Sci Total Environ. 2015 Aug 15;524-525:440-6. PubMed PMID: 25933175.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The first application of wastewater-based drug epidemiology in five South Korean cities. AU - Kim,Ki Yong, AU - Lai,Foon Yin, AU - Kim,Hee-Young, AU - Thai,Phong K, AU - Mueller,Jochen F, AU - Oh,Jeong-Eun, Y1 - 2015/04/29/ PY - 2015/01/06/received PY - 2015/03/30/revised PY - 2015/04/13/accepted PY - 2015/5/2/entrez PY - 2015/5/2/pubmed PY - 2016/1/7/medline KW - Consumption rate KW - Illicit drug KW - Methamphetamine KW - Sewage epidemiology KW - South Korea KW - Wastewater analysis SP - 440 EP - 6 JF - The Science of the total environment JO - Sci. Total Environ. VL - 524-525 N2 - Illicit drug consumption in five cities in South Korea was estimated by analyzing 17 drug residues in untreated wastewater samples collected during the Christmas and New Year period of 2012-13. Only methamphetamine, amphetamine, and codeine were detected at concentrations of tens of nanograms per liter or even lower concentrations in more than 90% of the samples. Other illicit drug residues (including cocaine, methadone, and benzoylecgonine) that have been detected frequently in wastewater from other countries were not found in this study. Methamphetamine was found to be the most widely used illicit drug in South Korea, and the estimated average consumption rate was 22 mg d(-1) (1000 people)(-1). This rate is, for example, 2-5 times lower than the estimated average consumption rates in Hong Kong and other parts of China and 4-80 times lower than the estimated average consumption rates in cities in Western countries. It should be noted that the wastewater samples analyzed in this study were collected during a holiday season, when daily consumption of illicit drugs is often higher than on an average day. The methamphetamine usage rates were calculated for different cities in South Korea, and the usage rates in smaller cities was higher (2-4 times) than the average. SN - 1879-1026 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25933175/The_first_application_of_wastewater_based_drug_epidemiology_in_five_South_Korean_cities_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048-9697(15)00516-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -