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Neuropsychological performance in adolescent marijuana users with co-occurring alcohol use: A three-year longitudinal study.
Neuropsychology. 2015 Nov; 29(6):829-843.N

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The effect of adolescent marijuana use on brain development remains unclear despite relaxing legal restrictions, decreased perceived harm, and increasing use rates among youth. The aim of this 3-year prospective study was to evaluate the long-term neurocognitive effects of adolescent marijuana use.

METHOD

Adolescent marijuana users with concomitant alcohol use (MJ + ALC, n = 49) and control teens with limited substance use histories (CON, n = 59) were given neuropsychological and substance use assessments at project baseline, when they were ages 16-19. They were then reassessed 18 and 36 months later. Changes in neuropsychological measures were evaluated with repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for lifetime alcohol use, and examined the effects of group, time, and group by time interactions on cognitive functioning.

RESULTS

MJ + ALC users performed significantly worse than controls, across time points, in the domains of complex attention, memory, processing speed, and visuospatial functioning (ps <.05). Earlier age of marijuana use onset was associated with poorer processing speed and executive functioning by the 3-year follow-up (ps ≤.02).

CONCLUSIONS

Frequent marijuana use throughout adolescence and into young adulthood appeared linked to worsened cognitive performance. Earlier age of onset appears to be associated with poorer neurocognitive outcomes that emerge by young adulthood, providing further support for the notion that the brain may be uniquely sensitive to frequent marijuana exposure during the adolescent phase of neurodevelopment. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will determine the extent of neural recovery that may occur if use abates.

Authors+Show Affiliations

VA San Diego Healthcare System.Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego.San Diego State University.Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego.Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego.Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego.VA San Diego Healthcare System.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25938918

Citation

Jacobus, Joanna, et al. "Neuropsychological Performance in Adolescent Marijuana Users With Co-occurring Alcohol Use: a Three-year Longitudinal Study." Neuropsychology, vol. 29, no. 6, 2015, pp. 829-843.
Jacobus J, Squeglia LM, Infante MA, et al. Neuropsychological performance in adolescent marijuana users with co-occurring alcohol use: A three-year longitudinal study. Neuropsychology. 2015;29(6):829-843.
Jacobus, J., Squeglia, L. M., Infante, M. A., Castro, N., Brumback, T., Meruelo, A. D., & Tapert, S. F. (2015). Neuropsychological performance in adolescent marijuana users with co-occurring alcohol use: A three-year longitudinal study. Neuropsychology, 29(6), 829-843. https://doi.org/10.1037/neu0000203
Jacobus J, et al. Neuropsychological Performance in Adolescent Marijuana Users With Co-occurring Alcohol Use: a Three-year Longitudinal Study. Neuropsychology. 2015;29(6):829-843. PubMed PMID: 25938918.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Neuropsychological performance in adolescent marijuana users with co-occurring alcohol use: A three-year longitudinal study. AU - Jacobus,Joanna, AU - Squeglia,Lindsay M, AU - Infante,M Alejandra, AU - Castro,Norma, AU - Brumback,Ty, AU - Meruelo,Alejandro D, AU - Tapert,Susan F, Y1 - 2015/05/04/ PY - 2015/5/5/entrez PY - 2015/5/6/pubmed PY - 2016/6/21/medline SP - 829 EP - 843 JF - Neuropsychology JO - Neuropsychology VL - 29 IS - 6 N2 - OBJECTIVE: The effect of adolescent marijuana use on brain development remains unclear despite relaxing legal restrictions, decreased perceived harm, and increasing use rates among youth. The aim of this 3-year prospective study was to evaluate the long-term neurocognitive effects of adolescent marijuana use. METHOD: Adolescent marijuana users with concomitant alcohol use (MJ + ALC, n = 49) and control teens with limited substance use histories (CON, n = 59) were given neuropsychological and substance use assessments at project baseline, when they were ages 16-19. They were then reassessed 18 and 36 months later. Changes in neuropsychological measures were evaluated with repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for lifetime alcohol use, and examined the effects of group, time, and group by time interactions on cognitive functioning. RESULTS: MJ + ALC users performed significantly worse than controls, across time points, in the domains of complex attention, memory, processing speed, and visuospatial functioning (ps <.05). Earlier age of marijuana use onset was associated with poorer processing speed and executive functioning by the 3-year follow-up (ps ≤.02). CONCLUSIONS: Frequent marijuana use throughout adolescence and into young adulthood appeared linked to worsened cognitive performance. Earlier age of onset appears to be associated with poorer neurocognitive outcomes that emerge by young adulthood, providing further support for the notion that the brain may be uniquely sensitive to frequent marijuana exposure during the adolescent phase of neurodevelopment. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will determine the extent of neural recovery that may occur if use abates. SN - 1931-1559 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25938918/Neuropsychological_performance_in_adolescent_marijuana_users_with_co_occurring_alcohol_use:_A_three_year_longitudinal_study_ L2 - http://content.apa.org/journals/neu/29/6/829 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -