Biomarkers of oxidative stress in rat for assessing toxicological effects of heavy metal pollution in river water.Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2015 Sep; 22(17):13453-63.ES
Increasing use of heavy metals in various fields, their environmental persistency, and poor regulatory efforts have significantly increased their fraction in river water. We studied the effect of Musi river water pollution on oxidative stress biomarkers and histopathology in rat after 28 days repeated oral treatment. River water analysis showed the presence of Zn and Pb at mg/l concentration and Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sn, and Sb at μg/l concentration. River water treatment resulted in a dose-dependent accumulation of metals in rat organs, being more in liver followed by kidney and brain. Metal content in both control and low-dose group rat organs was below limit of detection. However, metal bioaccumulation in high- and medium-dose group organs as follows: liver-Zn (21.4 & 14.5 μg/g), Cu (8.3 & 3.6 μg/g), and Pb (8.2 & 0.4 μg/g); kidney-Zn (16.2 & 7.9 μg/g), Cu (3.5 & 1.4 μg/g), Mn (2.9 & 0.5 μg/g), and Pb (2.6 & 0.5 μg/g); and brain-Zn (2.4 & 1.1 μg/g), and Ni (1 & 0.3 μg/g). These metals were present at high concentrations in respective organs than other metals. The increased heavy metal concentration in treated rat resulted significant increase in superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S transferase enzymes activity, and lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. However, glutathione content and catalase activity were significantly decreased in treated rat organs. Histopathological examination also confirmed morphological changes in rat organs due to polluted river water treatment. In conclusion, the findings of this study clearly indicate the oxidative stress condition in rat organs due to repeated oral treatment of polluted Musi river water.