Geochemical fractions and risk assessment of trace elements in soils around Jiaojia gold mine in Shandong Province, China.Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2015 Sep; 22(17):13496-505.ES
Soils located adjacent to the Jiaojia gold mine were sampled and analyzed to determine the degree of which they were contaminated by trace elements (Hg, As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn) in Shandong Province, China. All 18 samples exhibited mean Hg, As, Cd, and Pb concentrations in excess of local background values, while the mean concentrations of Cu and Zn were below the background values. In addition, the concentrations of trace elements in gold smelter (GS) soils were higher than in the gold mine (GM) soils. The result from a modified Tessier sequential extraction procedure was that with the exception of Cu in soils near the smelter, the trace elements were predominantly associated with the residual fraction. After residual fraction, most Hg was mainly humic acid and strong organic fraction, while most As was the humic acid. Cd was associated with the water soluble, ion exchange, and carbonate fractions compared with the other trace elements. Furthermore, Cu, Pb, and Zn were more concentrated in the humic acid and Fe/Mn oxide fraction. The fractions of trace elements were affected by soil pH and Ec (Electrical conductivity). The humic acid fraction of Hg as well as the ion exchange fraction of Cd and Zn displayed negative correlations with soil pH. The strong organic fraction of Hg, the Fe/Mn oxide fraction of Cd, and the carbonate fraction of Zn were positively related to the soil Ec. The strong organic fraction and ion exchange fraction of Zn were negatively related to soil Ec. However, the ion exchange and carbonate fractions of As showed significant positive correlations with soil pH. A calculated individual availability factor (A f (i)) is used; the values of each trace element in the soils are in the following order: Cu > Cd > Pb > Zn > As > Hg. When combined with a risk assessment code, data suggest that Hg, As, Pb, and Zn levels showed low risk for the environment, whereas Cd levels in soils adjacent to the GM and Cu levels in soils adjacent to the GS showed medium risk to the environment, and Cd levels in soils adjacent to the GS exhibited higher environment risk.