Pharmacotherapy for leishmaniasis in the United States: focus on miltefosine.Pharmacotherapy. 2015 May; 35(5):536-45.P
Leishmaniasis is a protozoan infection native to various countries, including those in South America and Southeast Asia. Although the incidence of leishmaniasis is low in the United States, it is an important cause of infection in individuals traveling to endemic areas. Various treatment modalities are available, depending on their availability in the geographic region. In the United States, the treatment of choice is considered to be liposomal amphotericin, although other therapies have been explored. In 2014, miltefosine became the first orally available medication approved for the treatment of leishmaniasis in the United States. Based on available data, miltefosine is a first-line option for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Miltefosine is equally efficacious to and may be as tolerable as liposomal amphotericin B. The most common adverse effects of miltefosine are vomiting, diarrhea, and transient liver enzyme level elevation. Miltefosine has not been readily available in the United States due to marketing delays and is expected to become available later this year. In the meantime, the drug may be obtained through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expanded-access investigational new drug protocol.