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Differences in Lower Extremity and Trunk Kinematics between Single Leg Squat and Step Down Tasks.
PLoS One 2015; 10(5):e0126258Plos

Abstract

The single leg squat and single leg step down are two commonly used functional tasks to assess movement patterns. It is unknown how kinematics compare between these tasks. The purpose of this study was to identify kinematic differences in the lower extremity, pelvis and trunk between the single leg squat and the step down. Fourteen healthy individuals participated in this research and performed the functional tasks while kinematic data were collected for the trunk, pelvis, and lower extremities using a motion capture system. For the single leg squat task, the participant was instructed to squat as low as possible. For the step down task, the participant was instructed to stand on top of a box, slowly lower him/herself until the non-stance heel touched the ground, and return to standing. This was done from two different heights (16 cm and 24 cm). The kinematics were evaluated at peak knee flexion as well as at 60° of knee flexion. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) between the angles at those two time points were also calculated to better understand the relationship between each task. The tasks resulted in kinematics differences at the knee, hip, pelvis, and trunk at both time points. The single leg squat was performed with less hip adduction (p ≤ 0.003), but more hip external rotation and knee abduction (p ≤ 0.030), than the step down tasks at 60° of knee flexion. These differences were maintained at peak knee flexion except hip external rotation was only significant in the 24 cm step down task (p ≤ 0.029). While there were multiple differences between the two step heights at peak knee flexion, the only difference at 60° of knee flexion was in trunk flexion (p < 0.001). Angles at the knee and hip had a moderate to excellent correlation (r = 0.51-0.98), but less consistently so at the pelvis and trunk (r = 0.21-0.96). The differences in movement patterns between the single leg squat and the step down should be considered when selecting a single leg task for evaluation or treatment. The high correlation of knee and hip angles between the three tasks indicates that similar information about knee and hip kinematics was gained from each of these tasks, while pelvis and trunk angles were less well predicted.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Physical Therapy & Athletic Training, Boston University, Boston, MA, United States of America.Nutrition, Exercise, and Health Sciences, Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA, United States of America.Department of Physical Therapy & Athletic Training, Boston University, Boston, MA, United States of America.Department of Physical Therapy & Athletic Training, Boston University, Boston, MA, United States of America.Department of Physical Therapy & Athletic Training, Boston University, Boston, MA, United States of America.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25955321

Citation

Lewis, Cara L., et al. "Differences in Lower Extremity and Trunk Kinematics Between Single Leg Squat and Step Down Tasks." PloS One, vol. 10, no. 5, 2015, pp. e0126258.
Lewis CL, Foch E, Luko MM, et al. Differences in Lower Extremity and Trunk Kinematics between Single Leg Squat and Step Down Tasks. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(5):e0126258.
Lewis, C. L., Foch, E., Luko, M. M., Loverro, K. L., & Khuu, A. (2015). Differences in Lower Extremity and Trunk Kinematics between Single Leg Squat and Step Down Tasks. PloS One, 10(5), pp. e0126258. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0126258.
Lewis CL, et al. Differences in Lower Extremity and Trunk Kinematics Between Single Leg Squat and Step Down Tasks. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(5):e0126258. PubMed PMID: 25955321.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Differences in Lower Extremity and Trunk Kinematics between Single Leg Squat and Step Down Tasks. AU - Lewis,Cara L, AU - Foch,Eric, AU - Luko,Marc M, AU - Loverro,Kari L, AU - Khuu,Anne, Y1 - 2015/05/08/ PY - 2014/11/26/received PY - 2015/03/31/accepted PY - 2015/5/9/entrez PY - 2015/5/9/pubmed PY - 2016/4/28/medline SP - e0126258 EP - e0126258 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 10 IS - 5 N2 - The single leg squat and single leg step down are two commonly used functional tasks to assess movement patterns. It is unknown how kinematics compare between these tasks. The purpose of this study was to identify kinematic differences in the lower extremity, pelvis and trunk between the single leg squat and the step down. Fourteen healthy individuals participated in this research and performed the functional tasks while kinematic data were collected for the trunk, pelvis, and lower extremities using a motion capture system. For the single leg squat task, the participant was instructed to squat as low as possible. For the step down task, the participant was instructed to stand on top of a box, slowly lower him/herself until the non-stance heel touched the ground, and return to standing. This was done from two different heights (16 cm and 24 cm). The kinematics were evaluated at peak knee flexion as well as at 60° of knee flexion. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) between the angles at those two time points were also calculated to better understand the relationship between each task. The tasks resulted in kinematics differences at the knee, hip, pelvis, and trunk at both time points. The single leg squat was performed with less hip adduction (p ≤ 0.003), but more hip external rotation and knee abduction (p ≤ 0.030), than the step down tasks at 60° of knee flexion. These differences were maintained at peak knee flexion except hip external rotation was only significant in the 24 cm step down task (p ≤ 0.029). While there were multiple differences between the two step heights at peak knee flexion, the only difference at 60° of knee flexion was in trunk flexion (p < 0.001). Angles at the knee and hip had a moderate to excellent correlation (r = 0.51-0.98), but less consistently so at the pelvis and trunk (r = 0.21-0.96). The differences in movement patterns between the single leg squat and the step down should be considered when selecting a single leg task for evaluation or treatment. The high correlation of knee and hip angles between the three tasks indicates that similar information about knee and hip kinematics was gained from each of these tasks, while pelvis and trunk angles were less well predicted. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25955321/Differences_in_Lower_Extremity_and_Trunk_Kinematics_between_Single_Leg_Squat_and_Step_Down_Tasks_ L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126258 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -