Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decrease milk yield but increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets(1).
J Dairy Sci. 2015 Jul; 98(7):4785-99.JD

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFX) on milk yield and concentrations and yields of milk components, milk fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112±68d in milk and 441±21kg of body weight and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 98±43d in milk and 401±43kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21d with 14d for diet adaptation and 7d for data and sample collection. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration (63:37 forage-to-concentrate ratio) with corn meal and soybean meal replaced by incremental levels (i.e., 0, 5, 10, or 15% diet dry matter) of GFX. The ruminal molar proportions of acetate and butyrate decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, whereas the ruminal molar proportion of propionate increased linearly resulting in decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of nutrients either decreased (dry matter) or tended to decrease (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber) linearly in cows fed GFX. Milk yield decreased linearly in cows fed increasing amounts of GFX, which is explained by the linear reduction in dry matter intake. Except for the concentrations of milk protein and urea N, which decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, no other changes in the concentration of milk components were observed. However, yields of milk protein and fat decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. The linear decrease in the yields of milk fat and protein are explained by reduced milk yield, whereas that in milk urea N is explained by decreased crude protein intake. No treatment effects were observed for plasma urea N and nonesterified fatty acids, serum cortisol, and body weight change. Milk odd- and branched-chain FA and saturated FA decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. Milk trans-11 18:1, α-linolenic acid, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, and the sum of n-3 FA all increased linearly and quadratically, whereas the milk ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased linearly in cows fed GFX. Overall, compared with the control diet (0% GFX), the diet with 15% GFX supplementation resulted in the lowest milk yield but highest milk proportions and yields (data not shown) of cis-9,trans-11 18:2 and n-3 FA.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil 30161-970.Department of Animal Science, University of Vermont, Burlington 05405.Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, University Park, PA 16802.Department of Biological Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Durham 03824.Departamento de Zootecnia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brazil, 36570-000.Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil 30161-970.Department of Biological Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Durham 03824. Electronic address: andre.brito@unh.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25958281

Citation

Resende, T L., et al. "Incremental Amounts of Ground Flaxseed Decrease Milk Yield but Increase N-3 Fatty Acids and Conjugated Linoleic Acids in Dairy Cows Fed High-forage Diets(1)." Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 98, no. 7, 2015, pp. 4785-99.
Resende TL, Kraft J, Soder KJ, et al. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decrease milk yield but increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets(1). J Dairy Sci. 2015;98(7):4785-99.
Resende, T. L., Kraft, J., Soder, K. J., Pereira, A. B., Woitschach, D. E., Reis, R. B., & Brito, A. F. (2015). Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decrease milk yield but increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets(1). Journal of Dairy Science, 98(7), 4785-99. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2014-9115
Resende TL, et al. Incremental Amounts of Ground Flaxseed Decrease Milk Yield but Increase N-3 Fatty Acids and Conjugated Linoleic Acids in Dairy Cows Fed High-forage Diets(1). J Dairy Sci. 2015;98(7):4785-99. PubMed PMID: 25958281.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decrease milk yield but increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets(1). AU - Resende,T L, AU - Kraft,J, AU - Soder,K J, AU - Pereira,A B D, AU - Woitschach,D E, AU - Reis,R B, AU - Brito,A F, Y1 - 2015/05/07/ PY - 2014/11/16/received PY - 2015/03/27/accepted PY - 2015/5/11/entrez PY - 2015/5/11/pubmed PY - 2016/3/19/medline KW - flaxseed KW - lactating dairy cow KW - milk fatty acid KW - milk yield SP - 4785 EP - 99 JF - Journal of dairy science JO - J Dairy Sci VL - 98 IS - 7 N2 - The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFX) on milk yield and concentrations and yields of milk components, milk fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112±68d in milk and 441±21kg of body weight and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 98±43d in milk and 401±43kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21d with 14d for diet adaptation and 7d for data and sample collection. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration (63:37 forage-to-concentrate ratio) with corn meal and soybean meal replaced by incremental levels (i.e., 0, 5, 10, or 15% diet dry matter) of GFX. The ruminal molar proportions of acetate and butyrate decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, whereas the ruminal molar proportion of propionate increased linearly resulting in decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of nutrients either decreased (dry matter) or tended to decrease (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber) linearly in cows fed GFX. Milk yield decreased linearly in cows fed increasing amounts of GFX, which is explained by the linear reduction in dry matter intake. Except for the concentrations of milk protein and urea N, which decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, no other changes in the concentration of milk components were observed. However, yields of milk protein and fat decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. The linear decrease in the yields of milk fat and protein are explained by reduced milk yield, whereas that in milk urea N is explained by decreased crude protein intake. No treatment effects were observed for plasma urea N and nonesterified fatty acids, serum cortisol, and body weight change. Milk odd- and branched-chain FA and saturated FA decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. Milk trans-11 18:1, α-linolenic acid, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, and the sum of n-3 FA all increased linearly and quadratically, whereas the milk ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased linearly in cows fed GFX. Overall, compared with the control diet (0% GFX), the diet with 15% GFX supplementation resulted in the lowest milk yield but highest milk proportions and yields (data not shown) of cis-9,trans-11 18:2 and n-3 FA. SN - 1525-3198 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25958281/Incremental_amounts_of_ground_flaxseed_decrease_milk_yield_but_increase_n_3_fatty_acids_and_conjugated_linoleic_acids_in_dairy_cows_fed_high_forage_diets_1__ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022-0302(15)00297-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -