Effects of Gancao on pharmacokinetic profiles of platycodin D and deapio-platycodin D in Jiegeng.J Ethnopharmacol. 2015 Jul 21; 170:50-6.JE
Jiegeng (Radix Platycodi), the dried root of Platycodon grandiflorum A. DC (Campanulaceae), has been used to treat cough, sore throat, bronchitis, and bronchial asthma for thousands of years. It is commonly prescribed with Gancao (Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae) as a herbal combination in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to produce synergistic effects.
AIM OF THE STUDY
To elucidate the herbaceous compatibility of Jiegeng and Gancao, we investigated the comparative pharmacokinetics, intestinal absorption, and microbial metabolism of platycodin D (PD) and deapio-platycodin D (DPD), the platycodins contained in Jiegeng.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
In the comparative pharmacokinetic study, the concentrations of PD and DPD in Jiegeng extract (JE) and the Jiegeng-Gancao herb pair (JGHP) were determined in rat plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In addition, the main pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using data analysis software (DAS). Furthermore, in vitro studies using Caco-2 cells and fecal lysates were performed to contradistinguish the intestinal absorption and microbial metabolism of PD and DPD in JE from those in JGHP.
The peak concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration curve (AUC) of PD in rats orally administrated JGHP significantly increased compared to that in rats treated with JE. In addition, the time to reach peak concentration (Tmax) and half-life (t1/2) of PD and DPD in combination with JGHP were all prolonged compared with those of JE. There was no significant difference in the absorption of PD between JE and JGHP in Caco-2 cells. However, the hydrolysis of both PD and DPD in JGHP were weaker than that in JE after a 2-h incubation in fecal lysate which might be responsible for the different pharmacokinetic profiles of the platycodins in JE and JGHP.
In this study, we discovered that Gancao might influence the pharmacokinetic profiles of PD and DPD in Jiegeng. Furthermore, the difference in profiles may be attributable to the inequable microbial metabolism rather than intestinal absorption of the platycodins in JE and JGHP. The results of this study elucidated the pharmacokinetic compatibility and rationale for the use of JGHP.