Role of stimulated intrarenal angiotensinogen in hypertension.Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis. 2015 Aug; 9(4):181-90.TA
Experimental models of hypertension and patients with inappropriately increased renin formation due to a stenotic kidney, arteriosclerotic narrowing of the renal arterioles or a rare juxtaglomerular cell tumor have shown a progressive augmentation of the intrarenal/intratubular renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The increased intrarenal angiotensin II (Ang II) elicits renal vasoconstriction and enhanced tubular sodium reabsorption in proximal and distal nephron segments. The enhanced intrarenal Ang II levels are due to both increased Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor mediated Ang II uptake and AT1 receptor dependent stimulation of renal angiotensinogen (AGT) mRNA and augmented AGT production. The increased AGT formation and secretion into the proximal tubular lumen leads to local formation of Ang II, which stimulates proximal transporters such as the sodium/hydrogen exchanger. Enhanced AGT production also leads to spillover of AGT into the distal nephron segments as reflected by AGT in the urine, which provides an index of intrarenal RAS activity. There is also increased Ang II concentration in distal nephron with stimulation of distal sodium transport. Increased urinary excretion of AGT has been demonstrated in patients with hypertension, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and several types of chronic kidney diseases indicating an upregulation of intrarenal RAS activity.