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Route of electrochemical oxidation of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole on a mixed oxide anode.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2015 Oct; 22(19):15004-15.ES

Abstract

The appearance of pharmaceutical compounds and their bioactive transformation products in aquatic environments is becoming an issue of increasing concern. In this study, the electrochemical oxidation of the widely used antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was investigated using a commercial mixed oxide anode (Ti/Ru0.3Ti0.7O2) and a single compartment filter press-type flow reactor. The kinetics of SMX degradation was determined as a function of electrolyte composition, applied current density, and initial pH. Almost complete (98 %) degradation of SMX could be achieved within 30 min of electrolysis in 0.1 mol L(-1) NaCl solution at pH 3 with applied current densities ≥20 mA cm(-2). Nine major intermediates of the reaction were identified by LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS (e.g., C6H9NO2S (m/z = 179), C6H4NOCl (m/z = 141), and C6H6O2 (m/z = 110)). The degradation followed various routes involving cleavage of the oxazole and benzene rings by hydroxyl and/or chlorine radicals, processes that could occur before or after rupture of the N-S bond, followed by oxidation of the remaining moieties. Analysis of the total organic carbon content revealed that the antibiotic was partially mineralized under the conditions employed and some inorganic ions, including NO3 (-) and SO4 (2-), could be identified. The results presented herein demonstrate the efficacy of the electrochemical process using a Ti/Ru0.3Ti0.7O2 anode for the remediation of wastewater containing the antibiotic SMX.

Authors+Show Affiliations

São Carlos Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo, Avenida Trabalhador São Carlense 400, São Carlos, SP, 13566-590, Brazil.São Carlos Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo, Avenida Trabalhador São Carlense 400, São Carlos, SP, 13566-590, Brazil.São Carlos Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo, Avenida Trabalhador São Carlense 400, São Carlos, SP, 13566-590, Brazil.São Carlos Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo, Avenida Trabalhador São Carlense 400, São Carlos, SP, 13566-590, Brazil.São Carlos Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo, Avenida Trabalhador São Carlense 400, São Carlos, SP, 13566-590, Brazil. artur@iqsc.usp.br.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26002364

Citation

Hussain, Sajjad, et al. "Route of Electrochemical Oxidation of the Antibiotic Sulfamethoxazole On a Mixed Oxide Anode." Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, vol. 22, no. 19, 2015, pp. 15004-15.
Hussain S, Gul S, Steter JR, et al. Route of electrochemical oxidation of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole on a mixed oxide anode. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2015;22(19):15004-15.
Hussain, S., Gul, S., Steter, J. R., Miwa, D. W., & Motheo, A. J. (2015). Route of electrochemical oxidation of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole on a mixed oxide anode. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 22(19), 15004-15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4699-9
Hussain S, et al. Route of Electrochemical Oxidation of the Antibiotic Sulfamethoxazole On a Mixed Oxide Anode. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2015;22(19):15004-15. PubMed PMID: 26002364.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Route of electrochemical oxidation of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole on a mixed oxide anode. AU - Hussain,Sajjad, AU - Gul,Saima, AU - Steter,Juliana R, AU - Miwa,Douglas W, AU - Motheo,Artur J, Y1 - 2015/05/24/ PY - 2015/02/06/received PY - 2015/05/12/accepted PY - 2015/5/24/entrez PY - 2015/5/24/pubmed PY - 2016/5/18/medline KW - Antibiotic KW - Electrooxidation KW - Mixed oxide anode KW - Sulfamethoxazole KW - Wastewater SP - 15004 EP - 15 JF - Environmental science and pollution research international JO - Environ Sci Pollut Res Int VL - 22 IS - 19 N2 - The appearance of pharmaceutical compounds and their bioactive transformation products in aquatic environments is becoming an issue of increasing concern. In this study, the electrochemical oxidation of the widely used antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was investigated using a commercial mixed oxide anode (Ti/Ru0.3Ti0.7O2) and a single compartment filter press-type flow reactor. The kinetics of SMX degradation was determined as a function of electrolyte composition, applied current density, and initial pH. Almost complete (98 %) degradation of SMX could be achieved within 30 min of electrolysis in 0.1 mol L(-1) NaCl solution at pH 3 with applied current densities ≥20 mA cm(-2). Nine major intermediates of the reaction were identified by LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS (e.g., C6H9NO2S (m/z = 179), C6H4NOCl (m/z = 141), and C6H6O2 (m/z = 110)). The degradation followed various routes involving cleavage of the oxazole and benzene rings by hydroxyl and/or chlorine radicals, processes that could occur before or after rupture of the N-S bond, followed by oxidation of the remaining moieties. Analysis of the total organic carbon content revealed that the antibiotic was partially mineralized under the conditions employed and some inorganic ions, including NO3 (-) and SO4 (2-), could be identified. The results presented herein demonstrate the efficacy of the electrochemical process using a Ti/Ru0.3Ti0.7O2 anode for the remediation of wastewater containing the antibiotic SMX. SN - 1614-7499 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26002364/Route_of_electrochemical_oxidation_of_the_antibiotic_sulfamethoxazole_on_a_mixed_oxide_anode_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4699-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -