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Resting heart rate and the risk of developing impaired fasting glucose and diabetes: the Kailuan prospective study.
Int J Epidemiol 2015; 44(2):689-99IJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

To investigate the association between resting heart rate and the risk of developing impaired fasting glucose (IFG), diabetes and conversion from IFG to diabetes.

METHODS

The prospective analysis included 73,357 participants of the Kailuan cohort (57,719 men and 15,638 women). Resting heart rate was measured via electrocardiogram in 2006. Incident diabetes was defined as either the fasting blood glucose (FBG) ≥ 7.0 mmol/l or new active use of diabetes medications during the 4-year follow-up period. IFG was defined as a FBG between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/l. A meta-analysis including seven published prospective studies focused on heart rate and diabetes risk, and our current study was then conducted using random-effects models.

RESULTS

During 4 years of follow-up, 17,463 incident IFG cases and 4,649 incident diabetes cases were identified. The corresponding adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for each 10 beats/min increase in heart rate were 1.23 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19, 1.27] for incident diabetes, 1.11 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.13) for incident IFG and 1.13 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.17) for IFG to diabetes conversion. The risks of incident IFG and diabetes were significantly higher among participants aged < 50 years than those aged ≥ 50 years (P-interaction < 0.02 for both). A meta-analysis confirmed the positive association between resting heart rate and diabetes risk (pooled HR for the highest vs lowest heart rate quintile = 1.59, 95% CI:1.27, 2.00; n = 8).

CONCLUSION

Faster resting heart rate is associated with higher risk of developing IFG and diabetes, suggesting that heart rate could be used to identify individuals with a higher future risk of diabetes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA, Department of Internal Medicine, Kailuan Hospital Affiliated to Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension (A.V.), Brigham and Women's Hospital & Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA, Department of Health Care Center, Kailuan Hospital Affiliated to Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Graduate School, Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Department of Nutrition, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA and Department of Nutritional Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA, Department of Internal Medicine, Kailuan Hospital Affiliated to Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension (A.V.), Brigham and Women's Hospital & Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA, Department of Health Care Center, Kailuan Hospital Affiliated to Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Graduate School, Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Department of Nutrition, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA and Department of Nutritional Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA, Department of Internal Medicine, Kailuan Hospital Affiliated to Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension (A.V.), Brigham and Women's Hospital & Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA, Department of Health Care Center, Kailuan Hospital Affiliated to Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Graduate School, Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Department of Nutrition, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA and Department of Nutritional Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA, Department of Internal Medicine, Kailuan Hospital Affiliated to Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension (A.V.), Brigham and Women's Hospital & Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA, Department of Health Care Center, Kailuan Hospital Affiliated to Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Graduate School, Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Department of Nutrition, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA and Department of Nutritional Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA, Department of Internal Medicine, Kailuan Hospital Affiliated to Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension (A.V.), Brigham and Women's Hospital & Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA, Department of Health Care Center, Kailuan Hospital Affiliated to Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Graduate School, Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Department of Nutrition, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA and Department of Nutritional Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA, Department of Internal Medicine, Kailuan Hospital Affiliated to Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension (A.V.), Brigham and Women's Hospital & Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA, Department of Health Care Center, Kailuan Hospital Affiliated to Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Graduate School, Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Department of Nutrition, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA and Department of Nutritional Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA, Department of Internal Medicine, Kailuan Hospital Affiliated to Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension (A.V.), Brigham and Women's Hospital & Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA, Department of Health Care Center, Kailuan Hospital Affiliated to Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Graduate School, Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Department of Nutrition, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA and Department of Nutritional Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA, Department of Internal Medicine, Kailuan Hospital Affiliated to Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension (A.V.), Brigham and Women's Hospital & Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA, Department of Health Care Center, Kailuan Hospital Affiliated to Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Graduate School, Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Department of Nutrition, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA and Department of Nutritional Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA, Department of Internal Medicine, Kailuan Hospital Affiliated to Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension (A.V.), Brigham and Women's Hospital & Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA, Department of Health Care Center, Kailuan Hospital Affiliated to Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Graduate School, Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Department of Nutrition, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA and Department of Nutritional Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA, Department of Internal Medicine, Kailuan Hospital Affiliated to Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension (A.V.), Brigham and Women's Hospital & Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA, Department of Health Care Center, Kailuan Hospital Affiliated to Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Graduate School, Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Department of Nutrition, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA and Department of Nutritional Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA xxg14@psu.edu drwusl@163.com.Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA, Department of Internal Medicine, Kailuan Hospital Affiliated to Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension (A.V.), Brigham and Women's Hospital & Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA, Department of Health Care Center, Kailuan Hospital Affiliated to Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Graduate School, Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Department of Nutrition, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA and Department of Nutritional Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA, Department of Internal Medicine, Kailuan Hospital Affiliated to Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension (A.V.), Brigham and Women's Hospital & Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA, Department of Health Care Center, Kailuan Hospital Affiliated to Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Graduate School, Hebei United University, Tangshan, China, Department of Nutrition, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA and Department of Nutritional Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA xxg14@psu.edu drwusl@163.com.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Observational Study
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26002923

Citation

Wang, Liang, et al. "Resting Heart Rate and the Risk of Developing Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes: the Kailuan Prospective Study." International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 44, no. 2, 2015, pp. 689-99.
Wang L, Cui L, Wang Y, et al. Resting heart rate and the risk of developing impaired fasting glucose and diabetes: the Kailuan prospective study. Int J Epidemiol. 2015;44(2):689-99.
Wang, L., Cui, L., Wang, Y., Vaidya, A., Chen, S., Zhang, C., ... Gao, X. (2015). Resting heart rate and the risk of developing impaired fasting glucose and diabetes: the Kailuan prospective study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 44(2), pp. 689-99. doi:10.1093/ije/dyv079.
Wang L, et al. Resting Heart Rate and the Risk of Developing Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes: the Kailuan Prospective Study. Int J Epidemiol. 2015;44(2):689-99. PubMed PMID: 26002923.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Resting heart rate and the risk of developing impaired fasting glucose and diabetes: the Kailuan prospective study. AU - Wang,Liang, AU - Cui,Liufu, AU - Wang,Yanxue, AU - Vaidya,Anand, AU - Chen,Shuohua, AU - Zhang,Caifeng, AU - Zhu,Ying, AU - Li,Dongqing, AU - Hu,Frank B, AU - Wu,Shouling, AU - Gao,Xiang, Y1 - 2015/05/22/ PY - 2015/04/20/accepted PY - 2015/5/24/entrez PY - 2015/5/24/pubmed PY - 2016/3/16/medline KW - Heart rate KW - diabetes KW - prospective study SP - 689 EP - 99 JF - International journal of epidemiology JO - Int J Epidemiol VL - 44 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: To investigate the association between resting heart rate and the risk of developing impaired fasting glucose (IFG), diabetes and conversion from IFG to diabetes. METHODS: The prospective analysis included 73,357 participants of the Kailuan cohort (57,719 men and 15,638 women). Resting heart rate was measured via electrocardiogram in 2006. Incident diabetes was defined as either the fasting blood glucose (FBG) ≥ 7.0 mmol/l or new active use of diabetes medications during the 4-year follow-up period. IFG was defined as a FBG between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/l. A meta-analysis including seven published prospective studies focused on heart rate and diabetes risk, and our current study was then conducted using random-effects models. RESULTS: During 4 years of follow-up, 17,463 incident IFG cases and 4,649 incident diabetes cases were identified. The corresponding adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for each 10 beats/min increase in heart rate were 1.23 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19, 1.27] for incident diabetes, 1.11 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.13) for incident IFG and 1.13 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.17) for IFG to diabetes conversion. The risks of incident IFG and diabetes were significantly higher among participants aged < 50 years than those aged ≥ 50 years (P-interaction < 0.02 for both). A meta-analysis confirmed the positive association between resting heart rate and diabetes risk (pooled HR for the highest vs lowest heart rate quintile = 1.59, 95% CI:1.27, 2.00; n = 8). CONCLUSION: Faster resting heart rate is associated with higher risk of developing IFG and diabetes, suggesting that heart rate could be used to identify individuals with a higher future risk of diabetes. SN - 1464-3685 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26002923/Resting_heart_rate_and_the_risk_of_developing_impaired_fasting_glucose_and_diabetes:_the_Kailuan_prospective_study_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ije/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ije/dyv079 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -