Infections by Intestinal Coccidia and Giardia duodenalis.Clin Lab Med. 2015 Jun; 35(2):423-44.CL
The coccidians Cryptosporidium spp, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Cystoisospora belli and the flagellate Giardia duodenalis are pathogenic protozoa associated with gastrointestinal manifestations. Diagnosis relies heavily on microscopy, and although ova-and-parasite examinations can detect Giardia and Cystoisospora, Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora often require specific diagnostic requests. Approved non-microscopy methods are available for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, although negative results are frequently followed by microscopic assays. Polymerase chain reaction-based methods are not frequently used for diagnosis of Giardia and Cryptosporidium and have been used primarily for epidemiologic or outbreak investigations of Giardia and Cryptosporidium.