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Potential role of milk fat globule membrane in modulating plasma lipoproteins, gene expression, and cholesterol metabolism in humans: a randomized study.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Jul; 102(1):20-30.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Butter is rich in saturated fat [saturated fatty acids (SFAs)] and can increase plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, compared with other dairy foods, butter is low in milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) content, which encloses the fat. We hypothesized that different dairy foods may have distinct effects on plasma lipids because of a varying content of MFGM.

OBJECTIVE

We aimed to investigate whether the effects of milk fat on plasma lipids and cardiometabolic risk markers are modulated by the MFGM content.

DESIGN

The study was an 8-wk, single-blind, randomized, controlled isocaloric trial with 2 parallel groups including overweight men and women (n = 57 randomly assigned). For the intervention, subjects consumed 40 g milk fat/d as either whipping cream (MFGM diet) or butter oil (control diet). Intervention foods were matched for total fat, protein, carbohydrates, and calcium. Subjects were discouraged from consuming any other dairy products during the study. Plasma markers of cholesterol absorption and hepatic cholesterol metabolism were assessed together with global gene-expression analyses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

RESULTS

As expected, the control diet increased plasma lipids, whereas the MFGM diet did not [total cholesterol (±SD): +0.30 ± 0.49 compared with -0.04 ± 0.49 mmol/L, respectively (P = 0.024); LDL cholesterol: +0.36 ± 0.50 compared with +0.04 ± 0.36 mmol/L, respectively (P = 0.024); apolipoprotein B:apolipoprotein A-I ratio: +0.03 ± 0.09 compared with -0.05 ± 0.10 mmol/L, respectively (P = 0.007); and non-HDL cholesterol: +0.24 ± 0.49 compared with -0.14 ± 0.51 mmol/L, respectively (P = 0.013)]. HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, sitosterol, lathosterol, campesterol, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 plasma concentrations and fatty acid compositions did not differ between groups. Nineteen genes were differentially regulated between groups, and these genes were mostly correlated with lipid changes.

CONCLUSIONS

In contrast to milk fat without MFGM, milk fat enclosed by MFGM does not impair the lipoprotein profile. The mechanism is not clear although suppressed gene expression by MFGM correlated inversely with plasma lipids. The food matrix should be considered when evaluating cardiovascular aspects of different dairy foods. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01767077.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden;Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Dairy Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden;Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Dairy Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden;Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University, Lund, Sweden;Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.Metabolism Unit, Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, and KI/AZ Integrated CardioMetabolic Center, Department of Medicine, and Molecular Nutrition Unit, Center for Innovative Medicine, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; and.Metabolism Unit, Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, and KI/AZ Integrated CardioMetabolic Center, Department of Medicine, and Molecular Nutrition Unit, Center for Innovative Medicine, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; and.Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; ulf.riserus@pubcare.uu.se.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26016870

Citation

Rosqvist, Fredrik, et al. "Potential Role of Milk Fat Globule Membrane in Modulating Plasma Lipoproteins, Gene Expression, and Cholesterol Metabolism in Humans: a Randomized Study." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 102, no. 1, 2015, pp. 20-30.
Rosqvist F, Smedman A, Lindmark-Månsson H, et al. Potential role of milk fat globule membrane in modulating plasma lipoproteins, gene expression, and cholesterol metabolism in humans: a randomized study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(1):20-30.
Rosqvist, F., Smedman, A., Lindmark-Månsson, H., Paulsson, M., Petrus, P., Straniero, S., Rudling, M., Dahlman, I., & Risérus, U. (2015). Potential role of milk fat globule membrane in modulating plasma lipoproteins, gene expression, and cholesterol metabolism in humans: a randomized study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 102(1), 20-30. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.115.107045
Rosqvist F, et al. Potential Role of Milk Fat Globule Membrane in Modulating Plasma Lipoproteins, Gene Expression, and Cholesterol Metabolism in Humans: a Randomized Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(1):20-30. PubMed PMID: 26016870.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Potential role of milk fat globule membrane in modulating plasma lipoproteins, gene expression, and cholesterol metabolism in humans: a randomized study. AU - Rosqvist,Fredrik, AU - Smedman,Annika, AU - Lindmark-Månsson,Helena, AU - Paulsson,Marie, AU - Petrus,Paul, AU - Straniero,Sara, AU - Rudling,Mats, AU - Dahlman,Ingrid, AU - Risérus,Ulf, Y1 - 2015/05/27/ PY - 2015/01/09/received PY - 2015/04/22/accepted PY - 2015/5/29/entrez PY - 2015/5/29/pubmed PY - 2015/9/12/medline KW - MFGM KW - cholesterol KW - lipoproteins KW - milk fat globule membrane KW - saturated fat SP - 20 EP - 30 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 102 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Butter is rich in saturated fat [saturated fatty acids (SFAs)] and can increase plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, compared with other dairy foods, butter is low in milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) content, which encloses the fat. We hypothesized that different dairy foods may have distinct effects on plasma lipids because of a varying content of MFGM. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether the effects of milk fat on plasma lipids and cardiometabolic risk markers are modulated by the MFGM content. DESIGN: The study was an 8-wk, single-blind, randomized, controlled isocaloric trial with 2 parallel groups including overweight men and women (n = 57 randomly assigned). For the intervention, subjects consumed 40 g milk fat/d as either whipping cream (MFGM diet) or butter oil (control diet). Intervention foods were matched for total fat, protein, carbohydrates, and calcium. Subjects were discouraged from consuming any other dairy products during the study. Plasma markers of cholesterol absorption and hepatic cholesterol metabolism were assessed together with global gene-expression analyses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RESULTS: As expected, the control diet increased plasma lipids, whereas the MFGM diet did not [total cholesterol (±SD): +0.30 ± 0.49 compared with -0.04 ± 0.49 mmol/L, respectively (P = 0.024); LDL cholesterol: +0.36 ± 0.50 compared with +0.04 ± 0.36 mmol/L, respectively (P = 0.024); apolipoprotein B:apolipoprotein A-I ratio: +0.03 ± 0.09 compared with -0.05 ± 0.10 mmol/L, respectively (P = 0.007); and non-HDL cholesterol: +0.24 ± 0.49 compared with -0.14 ± 0.51 mmol/L, respectively (P = 0.013)]. HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, sitosterol, lathosterol, campesterol, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 plasma concentrations and fatty acid compositions did not differ between groups. Nineteen genes were differentially regulated between groups, and these genes were mostly correlated with lipid changes. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to milk fat without MFGM, milk fat enclosed by MFGM does not impair the lipoprotein profile. The mechanism is not clear although suppressed gene expression by MFGM correlated inversely with plasma lipids. The food matrix should be considered when evaluating cardiovascular aspects of different dairy foods. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01767077. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26016870/Potential_role_of_milk_fat_globule_membrane_in_modulating_plasma_lipoproteins_gene_expression_and_cholesterol_metabolism_in_humans:_a_randomized_study_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.115.107045 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -