The effect of plant sterols and different low doses of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil on lipoprotein subclasses.Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015 Sep; 59(9):1745-57.MN
Consumption of a low-fat spread enriched with plant sterols (PS) and different low doses (<2 g/day) of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish oil reduces serum triglycerides (TGs) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-Chol) and thus beneficially affects two blood lipid risk factors. Yet, their combined effects on TG and Chol in various lipoprotein subclasses have been investigated to a limited extent.
METHODS AND RESULTS
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study, we determined TG and Chol in 13 LP subclasses in fasting serum of 282 hypercholesterolemic subjects, who consumed either a placebo spread or one of the four spreads containing PS (2.5 g/day) and EPA+DHA (0.0, 0.9, 1.3, and 1.8 g/day) for 4 weeks. After PS treatment, total LDL-Chol was reduced, which was not further changed by EPA+DHA. No shift in the LDL-Chol particle distribution was observed. The addition of EPA+DHA to PS dose-dependently reduced VLDL-Chol and VLDL-TG mainly in larger particles. Furthermore, the two highest doses of EPA+DHA increased Chol and TG in the larger HDL particles, while these concentrations were decreased in the smallest HDL particles.
The consumption of a low-fat spread enriched with both PS and EPA+DHA induced shifts in the lipoprotein distribution that may provide additional cardiovascular benefits over PS consumption alone.