Cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease patients: intima-media thickness predicts the incidence and severity of histologically assessed medial calcification in radial arteries.BMC Nephrol 2015; 16:78BN
The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) and histologically assessed calcification of radial artery in relation to clinical features and laboratory markers of bone and mineral metabolism, inflammation, and oxidative stress in patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD).
The study comprised 59 patients (36 hemodialyzed, 23 predialysis). CCA-IMT was measured by ultrasonography; the biochemical parameters examined were assessed using routine laboratory methods, ELISA micro-plate immunoassays and spectrophotometry. Fragments of radial artery obtained during creation of hemodialysis access were cryosectioned and stained for calcifications using von Kossa method and alizarin red.
Glucose, osteoprotegerin, pentraxin 3 and Framingham risk score significantly correlated with CCA-IMT. In multiple regression analysis, OPG positively predicted CCA-IMT. Radial artery calcifications were found in 34 patients who showed higher CCA-IMT (0.98 ± 0.13 vs 0.86 ± 0.14 mm; P = 0.006). Higher CCA-IMT values were also associated with more advanced calcifications. CCA-IMT and the presence of plaques in common carotid artery were positive predictors of radial artery calcifications, independent of dialysis status, Framingham risk score, CRP and Ca x Pi [OR for calcifications 2.19 (1.08-4.45) per 0.1 mm increase in CCA-IMT]. The presence of radial artery calcifications was a significant predictor of mortality, independent of dialysis status and Framingham risk score [HR 3.16 (1.03-9.64)].
In CKD patients, CCA-IMT examination can be used as a surrogate measure to assess the incidence and severity of arterial medial calcification which is associated with poor clinical outcome in these patients.