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Association of dietary phosphate and serum phosphorus concentration by levels of kidney function.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Aug; 102(2):444-53.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The health implications of dietary phosphorus intake and the role of kidney function in managing serum phosphorus homeostasis are well studied. However, examining the source of dietary phosphorus intake and its impact on serum phosphorus has not been characterized in population studies.

OBJECTIVE

This study aimed to distinguish the association of food sources of organic phosphorus and inorganic phosphate additives with serum phosphorus concentration.

DESIGN

A cross-sectional analysis of 24-h food recall data from 7895 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 was performed. Phosphorus content of foods was categorized as organic or inorganic. Correlations of serum phosphorus to clinical and dietary intake variables were achieved by using multiple regression analysis.

RESULTS

After controlling for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), body mass index (BMI; in kg/m²), and albumin-to-creatinine ratio, a significant increase in serum phosphorus occurred with dairy foods with inorganic phosphates [parameter estimate (PE) ± SE: 0.07 ± 0.02 mg/dL, P < 0.01] or without inorganic phosphates (PE: 0.02 ± 0.01, P < 0.001) and cereals/grains with inorganic phosphates (PE: 0.005 ± 0.002, P < 0.01). Significantly higher serum phosphorus occurred when eGRF was <30 (PE: 0.24 ± 0.08, P < 0.0001), but eGFR 30-44 (PE: -0.11 ± 0.04, P < 0.01) and 45-60 (PE: -0.10 ± 0.04, P < 0.01) were associated with lower serum phosphorus; higher serum phosphorus was associated with BMI <18.5 (PE: 0.18 ± 0.05, P = 0.0009) but lower with BMI ≥35-39 (PE: -0.09 ± 0.03, P = 0.0013) or ≥40 (PE: -0.10 ± 0.03, P = 0.014).

CONCLUSIONS

This analysis shows that dairy products and cereals/grains having inorganic phosphate additives significantly increase serum phosphorus concentration, despite being consumed less frequently than foods without phosphate additives. It seems prudent for the Nutrient Facts Label to include phosphorus but also for food manufacturers to consider alternatives to phosphate additives.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Departments of Surgery and lwmoore@houstonmethodist.org.Departments of Surgery and.Departments of Surgery and.Medicine, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX.

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26040641

Citation

Moore, Linda W., et al. "Association of Dietary Phosphate and Serum Phosphorus Concentration By Levels of Kidney Function." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 102, no. 2, 2015, pp. 444-53.
Moore LW, Nolte JV, Gaber AO, et al. Association of dietary phosphate and serum phosphorus concentration by levels of kidney function. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(2):444-53.
Moore, L. W., Nolte, J. V., Gaber, A. O., & Suki, W. N. (2015). Association of dietary phosphate and serum phosphorus concentration by levels of kidney function. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 102(2), 444-53. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.114.102715
Moore LW, et al. Association of Dietary Phosphate and Serum Phosphorus Concentration By Levels of Kidney Function. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(2):444-53. PubMed PMID: 26040641.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Association of dietary phosphate and serum phosphorus concentration by levels of kidney function. AU - Moore,Linda W, AU - Nolte,Joy V, AU - Gaber,A Osama, AU - Suki,Wadi N, Y1 - 2015/06/03/ PY - 2014/11/19/received PY - 2015/05/01/accepted PY - 2015/6/5/entrez PY - 2015/6/5/pubmed PY - 2015/10/20/medline KW - body mass index KW - chronic kidney disease KW - diet KW - dietary phosphorus KW - kidney disease SP - 444 EP - 53 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 102 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: The health implications of dietary phosphorus intake and the role of kidney function in managing serum phosphorus homeostasis are well studied. However, examining the source of dietary phosphorus intake and its impact on serum phosphorus has not been characterized in population studies. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to distinguish the association of food sources of organic phosphorus and inorganic phosphate additives with serum phosphorus concentration. DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis of 24-h food recall data from 7895 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 was performed. Phosphorus content of foods was categorized as organic or inorganic. Correlations of serum phosphorus to clinical and dietary intake variables were achieved by using multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: After controlling for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), body mass index (BMI; in kg/m²), and albumin-to-creatinine ratio, a significant increase in serum phosphorus occurred with dairy foods with inorganic phosphates [parameter estimate (PE) ± SE: 0.07 ± 0.02 mg/dL, P < 0.01] or without inorganic phosphates (PE: 0.02 ± 0.01, P < 0.001) and cereals/grains with inorganic phosphates (PE: 0.005 ± 0.002, P < 0.01). Significantly higher serum phosphorus occurred when eGRF was <30 (PE: 0.24 ± 0.08, P < 0.0001), but eGFR 30-44 (PE: -0.11 ± 0.04, P < 0.01) and 45-60 (PE: -0.10 ± 0.04, P < 0.01) were associated with lower serum phosphorus; higher serum phosphorus was associated with BMI <18.5 (PE: 0.18 ± 0.05, P = 0.0009) but lower with BMI ≥35-39 (PE: -0.09 ± 0.03, P = 0.0013) or ≥40 (PE: -0.10 ± 0.03, P = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis shows that dairy products and cereals/grains having inorganic phosphate additives significantly increase serum phosphorus concentration, despite being consumed less frequently than foods without phosphate additives. It seems prudent for the Nutrient Facts Label to include phosphorus but also for food manufacturers to consider alternatives to phosphate additives. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26040641/Association_of_dietary_phosphate_and_serum_phosphorus_concentration_by_levels_of_kidney_function_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.114.102715 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -