Lack of Oestrogenic Inhibition of the Nuclear Factor-κB Pathway in Somatolactotroph Tumour Cells.J Neuroendocrinol. 2015 Sep; 27(9):692-701.JN
Activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB promotes cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis. We have previously shown that oestrogens sensitise normal anterior pituitary cells to the apoptotic effect of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α by inhibiting NF-κB nuclear translocation. In the present study, we examined whether oestrogens also modulate the NF-κB signalling pathway and apoptosis in GH3 cells, a rat somatolactotroph tumour cell line. As determined by Western blotting, 17β-oestradiol (E2) (10(-9) m) increased the nuclear concentration of NF-κB/p105, p65 and p50 in GH3 cells. However, E2 did not modify the expression of Bcl-xL, a NF-κB target gene. TNF-α induced apoptosis of GH3 cells incubated in either the presence or absence of E2 . Inhibition of the NF-kB pathway using BAY 11-7082 (BAY) (5 μm) decreased the viability of GH3 cells and increased the percentage of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL)-positive GH3 cells. BAY also increased TNF-α-induced apoptosis of GH3 cells, an effect that was further increased by an inhibitor of the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase pathway, SP600125 (10 μm). We also analysed the role of the NF-κB signalling pathway on proliferation and apoptosis of GH3 tumours in vivo. The administration of BAY to nude mice bearing GH3 tumours increased the number of TUNEL-positive cells and decreased the number of proliferating GH3 cells. These findings suggest that GH3 cells lose their oestrogenic inhibitory action on the NF-κB pathway and that the pro-apoptotic effect of TNF-α on these tumour pituitary cells does not require sensitisation by oestrogens as occurs in normal pituitary cells. NF-κB was required for the survival of GH3 cells, suggesting that pharmacological inhibition of the NF-κB pathway could interfere with pituitary tumour progression.