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Zinc Status of Vegetarians during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies and Meta-Analysis of Zinc Intake.
Nutrients. 2015 Jun 05; 7(6):4512-25.N

Abstract

Pregnant women are vulnerable to a low zinc status due to the additional zinc demands associated with pregnancy and foetal development. The present systematic review explores the relationship between habitual vegetarian diets and dietary zinc intake/status during pregnancy. The association between vegetarian diets and functional pregnancy outcome also is considered. A literature search was conducted of MEDLINE; PubMed; Embase; the Cochrane Library; Web of Science; and Scopus electronic databases up to September 2014. Six English-language observational studies qualified for inclusion in the systematic review. A meta-analysis was conducted that compared the dietary zinc intake of pregnant vegetarian and non-vegetarian (NV) groups; the zinc intake of vegetarians was found to be lower than that of NV (-1.38 ± 0.35 mg/day; p < 0.001); and the exclusion of low meat eaters from the analysis revealed a greater difference (-1.53 ± 0.44 mg/day; p = 0.001). Neither vegetarian nor NV groups met the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for zinc. In a qualitative synthesis; no differences were found between groups in serum/plasma zinc or in functional outcomes associated with pregnancy. In conclusion; pregnant vegetarian women have lower zinc intakes than NV control populations and both groups consume lower than recommended amounts. Further information is needed to determine whether physiologic adaptations in zinc metabolism are sufficient to meet maternal and foetal requirements during pregnancy on a low zinc diet.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. meika.foster@otago.ac.nz.Discipline of Nutrition and Metabolism, School of Molecular Bioscience, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. uher9297@uni.sydney.edu.au.Department of Statistics, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia. ashlini-ashika.prasad@students.mq.edu.au.Department of Statistics, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia. peter.petocz@mq.edu.au.Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. samir.samman@otago.ac.nz. Discipline of Nutrition and Metabolism, School of Molecular Bioscience, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. samir.samman@otago.ac.nz.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26056918

Citation

Foster, Meika, et al. "Zinc Status of Vegetarians During Pregnancy: a Systematic Review of Observational Studies and Meta-Analysis of Zinc Intake." Nutrients, vol. 7, no. 6, 2015, pp. 4512-25.
Foster M, Herulah UN, Prasad A, et al. Zinc Status of Vegetarians during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies and Meta-Analysis of Zinc Intake. Nutrients. 2015;7(6):4512-25.
Foster, M., Herulah, U. N., Prasad, A., Petocz, P., & Samman, S. (2015). Zinc Status of Vegetarians during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies and Meta-Analysis of Zinc Intake. Nutrients, 7(6), 4512-25. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7064512
Foster M, et al. Zinc Status of Vegetarians During Pregnancy: a Systematic Review of Observational Studies and Meta-Analysis of Zinc Intake. Nutrients. 2015 Jun 5;7(6):4512-25. PubMed PMID: 26056918.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Zinc Status of Vegetarians during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies and Meta-Analysis of Zinc Intake. AU - Foster,Meika, AU - Herulah,Ursula Nirmala, AU - Prasad,Ashlini, AU - Petocz,Peter, AU - Samman,Samir, Y1 - 2015/06/05/ PY - 2015/03/17/received PY - 2015/05/14/revised PY - 2015/05/18/accepted PY - 2015/6/10/entrez PY - 2015/6/10/pubmed PY - 2016/5/4/medline KW - biomarker KW - diet KW - intake KW - pregnancy KW - requirement KW - status KW - vegetarian KW - zinc SP - 4512 EP - 25 JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 7 IS - 6 N2 - Pregnant women are vulnerable to a low zinc status due to the additional zinc demands associated with pregnancy and foetal development. The present systematic review explores the relationship between habitual vegetarian diets and dietary zinc intake/status during pregnancy. The association between vegetarian diets and functional pregnancy outcome also is considered. A literature search was conducted of MEDLINE; PubMed; Embase; the Cochrane Library; Web of Science; and Scopus electronic databases up to September 2014. Six English-language observational studies qualified for inclusion in the systematic review. A meta-analysis was conducted that compared the dietary zinc intake of pregnant vegetarian and non-vegetarian (NV) groups; the zinc intake of vegetarians was found to be lower than that of NV (-1.38 ± 0.35 mg/day; p < 0.001); and the exclusion of low meat eaters from the analysis revealed a greater difference (-1.53 ± 0.44 mg/day; p = 0.001). Neither vegetarian nor NV groups met the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for zinc. In a qualitative synthesis; no differences were found between groups in serum/plasma zinc or in functional outcomes associated with pregnancy. In conclusion; pregnant vegetarian women have lower zinc intakes than NV control populations and both groups consume lower than recommended amounts. Further information is needed to determine whether physiologic adaptations in zinc metabolism are sufficient to meet maternal and foetal requirements during pregnancy on a low zinc diet. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26056918/Zinc_Status_of_Vegetarians_during_Pregnancy:_A_Systematic_Review_of_Observational_Studies_and_Meta_Analysis_of_Zinc_Intake_ L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu7064512 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -