Piroxicam inhibits herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vitro.Pharmazie. 2015 May; 70(5):331-6.P
Piroxicam is a potent, nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) which also exhibits antipyretic activity. The antiviral effect of piroxicam against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was examined in vitro on RC-37 monkey kidney cells using a plaque reduction assay. Piroxicam was dissolved in ethanol or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined at 4 μg/ml and 75 μg/ml, respectively. The IC50 for the standard antiherpetic drug acyclovir was determined at 1.6 μM. At non-cytotoxic concentrations of these piroxicam solutions, plaque formation was significantly reduced by 62.4% for ethanolic piroxicam and 72.8% for piroxicam in DMSO. The mode of antiviral action of these drugs was assessed by time-on-addition assays. No antiviral effect was observed when cells were incubated with piroxicam prior to infection with HSV-1 or when HSV-1 infected cells were treated with dissolved piroxicam. Herpesvirus infection was, however, significantly inhibited when HSV-1 was incubated with piroxicam prior to the infection of cells. These results indicate that piroxicam affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell, suggesting that piroxicam exerts a direct antiviral effect on HSV-1. Free herpesvirus was sensitive to piroxicam in a concentration-dependent manner and the inhibition of HSV-1 appears to occur before entering the cell but not after penetration of the virus into the cell. Considering the lipophilic nature of piroxicam, which enables it to penetrate the skin, it might be suitable for topical treatment of herpetic infections.