Mini-percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Under Total Ultrasonography in Patients Aged Less Than 3 Years: A Single-center Initial Experience from China.Chin Med J (Engl) 2015; 128(12):1596-600CM
Urolithiasis in pediatric population is a serious problem with the incidence increased these years. In the management of larger stones (diameters >2 cm), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is considered to be the gold standard. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of mini-PCNL under total ultrasonography in patients aged <3 years.
We reviewed 68 patients (80 renal units) aged <3 years between August 2006 and December 2014 in Peking University People's Hospital and Beijing Tsinghua Changung Hospital, including 36 renal units with a single stone, 6 with staghorn stones, 14 with upper ureteral stones, and 24 with multiple stones. The mean age of the patients was 24.2 months (range 6-36 months), and the mean maximum stone diameter was 19.2 mm (range 10-35 mm). The puncture site selection and tract dilation were guided by Doppler ultrasonography solely. All procedures were performed using 12-16 Fr tracts. Stones were fragmented using pneumatic lithotripsy and a holmium laser with an 8/9.8 Fr rigid ureteroscope.
Fifty-six patients with unilateral stones underwent a single session procedure, and 12 patients with bilateral stones underwent two procedures. The mean time to establish access was 2.8 min (range 1.8-5.0 min), the mean operative time was 36.5 min (range 20-88 min), the mean decrease in hemoglobin concentration was 8.9 g/L (2-15 g/L), and the stone-free rate (SFR) at hospital discharge was 94.0%. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 7.1 days (range 3-13 days). Postprocedure complications included fever (>38.5°C) in five patients and reactive pleural effusion in one patient. Blood loss requiring transfusion, sepsis, adjacent organ injury, and kidney loss were not observed.
This study indicated that ultrasound-guided mini-PCNL is feasible and safe in patients aged <3 years, without major complications or radiation exposure.