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Ingestion of Microplastics by Zooplankton in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2015 Oct; 69(3):320-30.AE

Abstract

Microplastics are increasingly recognized as being widespread in the world's oceans, but relatively little is known about ingestion by marine biota. In light of the potential for microplastic fibers and fragments to be taken up by small marine organisms, we examined plastic ingestion by two foundation species near the base of North Pacific marine food webs, the calanoid copepod Neocalanus cristatus and the euphausiid Euphausia pacifia. We developed an acid digestion method to assess plastic ingestion by individual zooplankton and detected microplastics in both species. Encounter rates resulting from ingestion were 1 particle/every 34 copepods and 1/every 17 euphausiids (euphausiids > copepods; p = 0.01). Consistent with differences in the size selection of food between these two zooplankton species, the ingested particle size was greater in euphausiids (816 ± 108 μm) than in copepods (556 ± 149 μm) (p = 0.014). The contribution of ingested microplastic fibres to total plastic decreased with distance from shore in euphausiids (r (2) = 70, p = 0.003), corresponding to patterns in our previous observations of microplastics in seawater samples from the same locations. This first evidence of microplastic ingestion by marine zooplankton indicate that species at lower trophic levels of the marine food web are mistaking plastic for food, which raises fundamental questions about potential risks to higher trophic level species. One concern is risk to salmon: We estimate that consumption of microplastic-containing zooplankton will lead to the ingestion of 2-7 microplastic particles/day by individual juvenile salmon in coastal British Columbia, and ≤91 microplastic particles/day in returning adults.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Ocean Pollution Research Program, Coastal Ocean Research Institute, Vancouver Aquarium, Vancouver, BC, V6B 3X8, Canada.Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Sidney, BC, V8L 4B2, Canada.Ocean Pollution Research Program, Coastal Ocean Research Institute, Vancouver Aquarium, Vancouver, BC, V6B 3X8, Canada. peter.ross@vanaqua.org.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26066061

Citation

Desforges, Jean-Pierre W., et al. "Ingestion of Microplastics By Zooplankton in the Northeast Pacific Ocean." Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 69, no. 3, 2015, pp. 320-30.
Desforges JP, Galbraith M, Ross PS. Ingestion of Microplastics by Zooplankton in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2015;69(3):320-30.
Desforges, J. P., Galbraith, M., & Ross, P. S. (2015). Ingestion of Microplastics by Zooplankton in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 69(3), 320-30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-015-0172-5
Desforges JP, Galbraith M, Ross PS. Ingestion of Microplastics By Zooplankton in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2015;69(3):320-30. PubMed PMID: 26066061.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Ingestion of Microplastics by Zooplankton in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. AU - Desforges,Jean-Pierre W, AU - Galbraith,Moira, AU - Ross,Peter S, Y1 - 2015/06/12/ PY - 2015/03/11/received PY - 2015/06/01/accepted PY - 2015/6/13/entrez PY - 2015/6/13/pubmed PY - 2016/3/19/medline SP - 320 EP - 30 JF - Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology JO - Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. VL - 69 IS - 3 N2 - Microplastics are increasingly recognized as being widespread in the world's oceans, but relatively little is known about ingestion by marine biota. In light of the potential for microplastic fibers and fragments to be taken up by small marine organisms, we examined plastic ingestion by two foundation species near the base of North Pacific marine food webs, the calanoid copepod Neocalanus cristatus and the euphausiid Euphausia pacifia. We developed an acid digestion method to assess plastic ingestion by individual zooplankton and detected microplastics in both species. Encounter rates resulting from ingestion were 1 particle/every 34 copepods and 1/every 17 euphausiids (euphausiids > copepods; p = 0.01). Consistent with differences in the size selection of food between these two zooplankton species, the ingested particle size was greater in euphausiids (816 ± 108 μm) than in copepods (556 ± 149 μm) (p = 0.014). The contribution of ingested microplastic fibres to total plastic decreased with distance from shore in euphausiids (r (2) = 70, p = 0.003), corresponding to patterns in our previous observations of microplastics in seawater samples from the same locations. This first evidence of microplastic ingestion by marine zooplankton indicate that species at lower trophic levels of the marine food web are mistaking plastic for food, which raises fundamental questions about potential risks to higher trophic level species. One concern is risk to salmon: We estimate that consumption of microplastic-containing zooplankton will lead to the ingestion of 2-7 microplastic particles/day by individual juvenile salmon in coastal British Columbia, and ≤91 microplastic particles/day in returning adults. SN - 1432-0703 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26066061/Ingestion_of_Microplastics_by_Zooplankton_in_the_Northeast_Pacific_Ocean_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-015-0172-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -