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Relationship of tree nut, peanut and peanut butter intake with total and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study and meta-analysis.
Int J Epidemiol 2015; 44(3):1038-49IJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Nut intake has been associated with lower mortality, but few studies have investigated causes of death other than cardiovascular disease, and dose-response relationships remain unclear.

METHODS

We investigated the relationship of nut (tree nut, peanut) and peanut butter intake with overall and cause-specific mortality. In the Netherlands Cohort Study, 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years provided information on dietary and lifestyle habits in 1986. Mortality follow-up until 1996 consisted of linkage to Statistics Netherlands. Multivariate case-cohort analyses were based on 8823 deaths and 3202 subcohort members with complete data on nuts and potential confounders. We also conducted meta-analyses of our results with those published from other cohort studies.

RESULTS

Total nut intake was related to lower overall and cause-specific mortality (cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, respiratory, neurodegenerative diseases, other causes) in men and women. When comparing those consuming 0.1-<5, 5-<10 and 10+ g nuts/day with non-consumers, multivariable hazard ratios for total mortality were 0.88, 0.74 and 0.77 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.66-0.89], respectively (Ptrend = 0.003). Cause-specific hazard ratios comparing 10+ vs 0 g/day varied from 0.56 for neurodegenerative to 0.83 for cardiovascular disease mortality. Restricted cubic splines showed nonlinear dose-response relationships with mortality. Peanuts and tree nuts were inversely related to mortality, whereas peanut butter was not. In meta-analyses, summary hazard ratios for highest vs lowest nut consumption were 0.85 for cancer, and 0.71 for respiratory mortality.

CONCLUSIONS

Nut intake was related to lower overall and cause-specific mortality, with evidence for nonlinear dose-response relationships. Peanut butter was not related to mortality.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Maastricht University Medical Centre, GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht, The Netherlands and Maastricht University Medical Centre, CAPHRI-School for Public Health and Primary Care, Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht, The Netherlands PA.vandenBrandt@maastrichtuniversity.nl.Maastricht University Medical Centre, GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht, The Netherlands and.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26066329

Citation

van den Brandt, Piet A., and Leo J. Schouten. "Relationship of Tree Nut, Peanut and Peanut Butter Intake With Total and Cause-specific Mortality: a Cohort Study and Meta-analysis." International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 44, no. 3, 2015, pp. 1038-49.
van den Brandt PA, Schouten LJ. Relationship of tree nut, peanut and peanut butter intake with total and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study and meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol. 2015;44(3):1038-49.
van den Brandt, P. A., & Schouten, L. J. (2015). Relationship of tree nut, peanut and peanut butter intake with total and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study and meta-analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology, 44(3), pp. 1038-49. doi:10.1093/ije/dyv039.
van den Brandt PA, Schouten LJ. Relationship of Tree Nut, Peanut and Peanut Butter Intake With Total and Cause-specific Mortality: a Cohort Study and Meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol. 2015;44(3):1038-49. PubMed PMID: 26066329.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Relationship of tree nut, peanut and peanut butter intake with total and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study and meta-analysis. AU - van den Brandt,Piet A, AU - Schouten,Leo J, Y1 - 2015/06/11/ PY - 2015/03/09/accepted PY - 2015/6/13/entrez PY - 2015/6/13/pubmed PY - 2016/4/29/medline KW - Nuts KW - cohort studies KW - mortality KW - neoplasms KW - peanuts KW - respiratory tract diseases SP - 1038 EP - 49 JF - International journal of epidemiology JO - Int J Epidemiol VL - 44 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Nut intake has been associated with lower mortality, but few studies have investigated causes of death other than cardiovascular disease, and dose-response relationships remain unclear. METHODS: We investigated the relationship of nut (tree nut, peanut) and peanut butter intake with overall and cause-specific mortality. In the Netherlands Cohort Study, 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years provided information on dietary and lifestyle habits in 1986. Mortality follow-up until 1996 consisted of linkage to Statistics Netherlands. Multivariate case-cohort analyses were based on 8823 deaths and 3202 subcohort members with complete data on nuts and potential confounders. We also conducted meta-analyses of our results with those published from other cohort studies. RESULTS: Total nut intake was related to lower overall and cause-specific mortality (cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, respiratory, neurodegenerative diseases, other causes) in men and women. When comparing those consuming 0.1-<5, 5-<10 and 10+ g nuts/day with non-consumers, multivariable hazard ratios for total mortality were 0.88, 0.74 and 0.77 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.66-0.89], respectively (Ptrend = 0.003). Cause-specific hazard ratios comparing 10+ vs 0 g/day varied from 0.56 for neurodegenerative to 0.83 for cardiovascular disease mortality. Restricted cubic splines showed nonlinear dose-response relationships with mortality. Peanuts and tree nuts were inversely related to mortality, whereas peanut butter was not. In meta-analyses, summary hazard ratios for highest vs lowest nut consumption were 0.85 for cancer, and 0.71 for respiratory mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Nut intake was related to lower overall and cause-specific mortality, with evidence for nonlinear dose-response relationships. Peanut butter was not related to mortality. SN - 1464-3685 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26066329/Relationship_of_tree_nut_peanut_and_peanut_butter_intake_with_total_and_cause_specific_mortality:_a_cohort_study_and_meta_analysis_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ije/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ije/dyv039 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -