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Opioid Overdose Deaths in the City and County of San Francisco: Prevalence, Distribution, and Disparities.
J Urban Health. 2015 Aug; 92(4):758-72.JU

Abstract

Drug overdose is now the leading cause of unintentional death nationwide, driven by increased prescription opioid overdoses. To better understand urban opioid overdose deaths, this paper examines geographic, demographic, and clinical differences between heroin-related decedents and prescription opioid decedents in San Francisco from 2010 to 2012. During this time period, 331 individuals died from accidental overdose caused by opioids (310 involving prescription opioids and 31 involving heroin). Deaths most commonly involved methadone (45.9%), morphine (26.9%), and oxycodone (21.8%). Most deaths also involved other substances (74.9%), most commonly cocaine (35.3%), benzodiazepines (27.5%), antidepressants (22.7%), and alcohol (19.6%). Deaths were concentrated in a small, high-poverty, central area of San Francisco and disproportionately affected African-American individuals. Decedents in high-poverty areas were significantly more likely to die from methadone and cocaine, whereas individuals from more affluent areas were more likely die from oxycodone and benzodiazepines. Heroin decedents were more likely to be within a younger age demographic, die in public spaces, and have illicit substances rather than other prescription opioids. Overall, heroin overdose death, previously common in San Francisco, is now rare. Prescription opioid overdose has emerged as a significant concern, particularly among individuals in high-poverty areas. Deaths in poor and affluent regions involve different causative opioids and co-occurring substances.

Authors+Show Affiliations

San Francisco Department of Public Health, 25 Van Ness Ave., San Francisco, CA, 94102, USA, ajv48@georgetown.edu.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26077643

Citation

Visconti, Adam J., et al. "Opioid Overdose Deaths in the City and County of San Francisco: Prevalence, Distribution, and Disparities." Journal of Urban Health : Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, vol. 92, no. 4, 2015, pp. 758-72.
Visconti AJ, Santos GM, Lemos NP, et al. Opioid Overdose Deaths in the City and County of San Francisco: Prevalence, Distribution, and Disparities. J Urban Health. 2015;92(4):758-72.
Visconti, A. J., Santos, G. M., Lemos, N. P., Burke, C., & Coffin, P. O. (2015). Opioid Overdose Deaths in the City and County of San Francisco: Prevalence, Distribution, and Disparities. Journal of Urban Health : Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 92(4), 758-72. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-015-9967-y
Visconti AJ, et al. Opioid Overdose Deaths in the City and County of San Francisco: Prevalence, Distribution, and Disparities. J Urban Health. 2015;92(4):758-72. PubMed PMID: 26077643.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Opioid Overdose Deaths in the City and County of San Francisco: Prevalence, Distribution, and Disparities. AU - Visconti,Adam J, AU - Santos,Glenn-Milo, AU - Lemos,Nikolas P, AU - Burke,Catherine, AU - Coffin,Phillip O, PY - 2015/6/17/entrez PY - 2015/6/17/pubmed PY - 2016/5/3/medline SP - 758 EP - 72 JF - Journal of urban health : bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine JO - J Urban Health VL - 92 IS - 4 N2 - Drug overdose is now the leading cause of unintentional death nationwide, driven by increased prescription opioid overdoses. To better understand urban opioid overdose deaths, this paper examines geographic, demographic, and clinical differences between heroin-related decedents and prescription opioid decedents in San Francisco from 2010 to 2012. During this time period, 331 individuals died from accidental overdose caused by opioids (310 involving prescription opioids and 31 involving heroin). Deaths most commonly involved methadone (45.9%), morphine (26.9%), and oxycodone (21.8%). Most deaths also involved other substances (74.9%), most commonly cocaine (35.3%), benzodiazepines (27.5%), antidepressants (22.7%), and alcohol (19.6%). Deaths were concentrated in a small, high-poverty, central area of San Francisco and disproportionately affected African-American individuals. Decedents in high-poverty areas were significantly more likely to die from methadone and cocaine, whereas individuals from more affluent areas were more likely die from oxycodone and benzodiazepines. Heroin decedents were more likely to be within a younger age demographic, die in public spaces, and have illicit substances rather than other prescription opioids. Overall, heroin overdose death, previously common in San Francisco, is now rare. Prescription opioid overdose has emerged as a significant concern, particularly among individuals in high-poverty areas. Deaths in poor and affluent regions involve different causative opioids and co-occurring substances. SN - 1468-2869 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26077643/Opioid_Overdose_Deaths_in_the_City_and_County_of_San_Francisco:_Prevalence_Distribution_and_Disparities_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11524-015-9967-y DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -