Fluid replacement during and after exercise in the heat.Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1989 Oct; 21(5):532-9.MS
This study sought to determine whether ad libitum drinking of a carbohydrate-electrolyte (CE) beverage would minimize the physiological disturbances associated with prolonged (3 h) continuous exercise in the heat (Tdb = 31.5 degrees C, percent RH = 22.3). Seven male subjects performed two bouts of cycle exercise (60% VO2max) drinking either a CE beverage (4.85% polycose, 2.65% fructose) or distilled water. Subjects continued to drink ad libitum for 3 h during recovery in the heat. No significant differences were observed between drinks for rectal temperature, heart rate, or sweat rate during exercise. Subjects tended to drink more (P less than 0.0565) water than the CE beverage during exercise, but plasma volume (percent PV) decreased less (P less than 0.0253) and plasma [(glucose], P less than 0.0001 and [K+], P less than 0.0047) were higher when subjects drank the CE solution. At the end of exercise, plasma osmolality and [Na+] were also higher (P less than 0.05) when subjects drank the CE beverage rather than water. Rating of perceived exertion was higher (P less than 0.0001) when drinking water. In recovery, ingesting the CE beverage, 1) subjects drank more (P less than 0.0012); 2) plasma volume increased to a higher level (P less than 0.0017); 3) plasma osmolality (P less than 0.0001), [Na+] (P less than 0.0001), glucose (P less than 0.0001), and [K+] (P less than 0.0015) were greater; and 4) body weight increased more (P less than 0.0422) than when water was ingested. Thus, in terms of minimizing physiological disturbances, ad libitum drinking of the CE beverage was as effective as drinking water during exercise but was more effective in recovery.