Vitamin D in Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Effects on Clinical, Biochemical, and Densitometric Presentation.J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015; 100(9):3443-51JC
Vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD]) deficiency (<20 ng/mL) and insufficiency (20-29 ng/mL) are common in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), but data regarding their skeletal effects in PHPT are limited.
The objective was to evaluate the association between 25OHD levels and PHPT severity.
DESIGN, SETTINGS, AND PARTICIPANTS
This is a cross-sectional analysis of 100 PHPT patients with and without 25OHD insufficiency and deficiency from a university hospital setting.
We measured calciotropic hormones, bone turnover markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) by dual x-ray absorptiometry.
Lower 25OHD was associated with some (PTH: r = -0.42; P < .0001; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D: r = -0.27; P = .008; serum PO4: r = 0.31; P = .002) but not all (serum/urine calcium) indicators of PHPT severity. Lower 25OHD was also associated with younger age, higher body mass index, male gender, better renal function, and lower vitamin D intake. Comparison of those with deficient (<20 ng/mL; 19%) vs insufficient (20-29 ng/mL; 35%) vs replete (≥30 ng/mL; 46%) 25OHD demonstrated more severe PHPT as reflected by higher PTH (mean ± SEM, 126 ± 10 vs 81 ± 7 vs 72 ± 7 pg/mL; P < .0001) but no difference in nephrolithiasis, osteoporosis, fractures, serum or urinary calcium, bone turnover markers, or BMD after adjustment for age and weight. In women, T-scores at the 1/3 radius were lower in those with 25OHD of 20-29 ng/mL, compared to those who were vitamin D replete (P = .048). In multiple regression modeling, 25OHD (but not PTH) was an independent predictor of 1/3 radius BMD.
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with more severe PHPT as reflected by PTH levels, but effects on BMD are limited to the cortical 1/3 radius and are quite modest. These data support international guidelines that consider PHPT patients with 25OHD <20 ng/mL to be deficient. However, in this cohort with few profoundly vitamin D-deficient patients, vitamin D status did not appear to significantly impact clinical presentation or bone density.