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Coffee consumption and incidence of lung cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.
Int J Epidemiol 2016; 45(3):929-39IJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Coffee drinkers had a higher risk of lung cancer in some previous studies, but as heavy coffee drinkers tend to also be cigarette smokers, such findings could be confounded. Therefore, we examined this association in the nearly half a million participants of the US NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

METHODS

Typical coffee intake and smoking history were queried at baseline. During 4 155 256 person-years of follow-up, more than 9000 incident lung cancer cases occurred. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs)and 95% confidence intervals for coffee intake and subsequent incidence of lung cancer. We also comprehensively adjusted for tobacco smoking and examined associations by detailed strata of tobacco use.

RESULTS

Coffee drinkers were far more likely to smoke than non-drinkers. Although coffee drinking was associated with lung cancer in age- and sex- adjusted models (HR for ≥ 6 cups/day compared with none: 4.56, 4.08-5.10), this association was substantially attenuated after adjusting for smoking (HR: 1.27, 1.14-1.42). Similar findings were observed for each different histological type of lung cancer, and for participants drinking predominantly caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee. Little evidence for an association was observed in our stratified analyses, either within never smokers or in most categories of tobacco use.

CONCLUSIONS

Coffee drinking was positively associated with lung cancer in our study, although the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for tobacco smoking. As our adjustment for lifetime tobacco use was imperfect, it is likely that the remaining association is due to residual confounding by smoking, although other explanations are possible.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Nutritional Epidemiology Branch, Biostatistics Branch and Genetic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA kristin.guertin@nih.gov.Nutritional Epidemiology Branch, Biostatistics Branch and Genetic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA.Nutritional Epidemiology Branch, Biostatistics Branch and Genetic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA.Nutritional Epidemiology Branch, Biostatistics Branch and Genetic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA.Nutritional Epidemiology Branch, Biostatistics Branch and Genetic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA.Nutritional Epidemiology Branch, Biostatistics Branch and Genetic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26082405

Citation

Guertin, Kristin A., et al. "Coffee Consumption and Incidence of Lung Cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study." International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 45, no. 3, 2016, pp. 929-39.
Guertin KA, Freedman ND, Loftfield E, et al. Coffee consumption and incidence of lung cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Int J Epidemiol. 2016;45(3):929-39.
Guertin, K. A., Freedman, N. D., Loftfield, E., Graubard, B. I., Caporaso, N. E., & Sinha, R. (2016). Coffee consumption and incidence of lung cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 45(3), pp. 929-39. doi:10.1093/ije/dyv104.
Guertin KA, et al. Coffee Consumption and Incidence of Lung Cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Int J Epidemiol. 2016;45(3):929-39. PubMed PMID: 26082405.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Coffee consumption and incidence of lung cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. AU - Guertin,Kristin A, AU - Freedman,Neal D, AU - Loftfield,Erikka, AU - Graubard,Barry I, AU - Caporaso,Neil E, AU - Sinha,Rashmi, Y1 - 2015/06/16/ PY - 2015/05/19/accepted PY - 2015/6/18/entrez PY - 2015/6/18/pubmed PY - 2018/1/5/medline KW - Coffee KW - caffeine KW - lung cancer KW - smoking KW - tobacco SP - 929 EP - 39 JF - International journal of epidemiology JO - Int J Epidemiol VL - 45 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Coffee drinkers had a higher risk of lung cancer in some previous studies, but as heavy coffee drinkers tend to also be cigarette smokers, such findings could be confounded. Therefore, we examined this association in the nearly half a million participants of the US NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. METHODS: Typical coffee intake and smoking history were queried at baseline. During 4 155 256 person-years of follow-up, more than 9000 incident lung cancer cases occurred. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs)and 95% confidence intervals for coffee intake and subsequent incidence of lung cancer. We also comprehensively adjusted for tobacco smoking and examined associations by detailed strata of tobacco use. RESULTS: Coffee drinkers were far more likely to smoke than non-drinkers. Although coffee drinking was associated with lung cancer in age- and sex- adjusted models (HR for ≥ 6 cups/day compared with none: 4.56, 4.08-5.10), this association was substantially attenuated after adjusting for smoking (HR: 1.27, 1.14-1.42). Similar findings were observed for each different histological type of lung cancer, and for participants drinking predominantly caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee. Little evidence for an association was observed in our stratified analyses, either within never smokers or in most categories of tobacco use. CONCLUSIONS: Coffee drinking was positively associated with lung cancer in our study, although the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for tobacco smoking. As our adjustment for lifetime tobacco use was imperfect, it is likely that the remaining association is due to residual confounding by smoking, although other explanations are possible. SN - 1464-3685 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26082405/Coffee_consumption_and_incidence_of_lung_cancer_in_the_NIH_AARP_Diet_and_Health_Study_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ije/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ije/dyv104 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -