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Antarctic notothenioid fish: what are the future consequences of 'losses' and 'gains' acquired during long-term evolution at cold and stable temperatures?
J Exp Biol. 2015 Jun; 218(Pt 12):1834-45.JE

Abstract

Antarctic notothenioids dominate the fish fauna of the Southern Ocean. Evolution for millions of years at cold and stable temperatures has led to the acquisition of numerous biochemical traits that allow these fishes to thrive in sub-zero waters. The gain of antifreeze glycoproteins has afforded notothenioids the ability to avert freezing and survive at temperatures often hovering near the freezing point of seawater. Additionally, possession of cold-adapted proteins and membranes permits them to sustain appropriate metabolic rates at exceptionally low body temperatures. The notothenioid genome is also distinguished by the disappearance of traits in some species, losses that might prove costly in a warmer environment. Perhaps the best-illustrated example is the lack of expression of hemoglobin in white-blooded icefishes from the family Channichthyidae. Loss of key elements of the cellular stress response, notably the heat shock response, has also been observed. Along with their attainment of cold tolerance, notothenioids have developed an extreme stenothermy and many species perish at temperatures only a few degrees above their habitat temperatures. Thus, in light of today's rapidly changing climate, it is critical to evaluate how these extreme stenotherms will respond to rising ocean temperatures. It is conceivable that the remarkable cold specialization of notothenioids may ultimately leave them vulnerable to future thermal increases and threaten their fitness and survival. Within this context, our review provides a current summary of the biochemical losses and gains that are known for notothenioids and examines these cold-adapted traits with a focus on processes underlying thermal tolerance and acclimation capacity.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, 120 Ocean View Boulevard, Pacific Grove, CA 93950, USA jbeers@stanford.edu.Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, 450 Research Drive, Durham, NC 27708, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26085661

Citation

Beers, Jody M., and Nishad Jayasundara. "Antarctic Notothenioid Fish: what Are the Future Consequences of 'losses' and 'gains' Acquired During Long-term Evolution at Cold and Stable Temperatures?" The Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 218, no. Pt 12, 2015, pp. 1834-45.
Beers JM, Jayasundara N. Antarctic notothenioid fish: what are the future consequences of 'losses' and 'gains' acquired during long-term evolution at cold and stable temperatures? J Exp Biol. 2015;218(Pt 12):1834-45.
Beers, J. M., & Jayasundara, N. (2015). Antarctic notothenioid fish: what are the future consequences of 'losses' and 'gains' acquired during long-term evolution at cold and stable temperatures? The Journal of Experimental Biology, 218(Pt 12), 1834-45. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.116129
Beers JM, Jayasundara N. Antarctic Notothenioid Fish: what Are the Future Consequences of 'losses' and 'gains' Acquired During Long-term Evolution at Cold and Stable Temperatures. J Exp Biol. 2015;218(Pt 12):1834-45. PubMed PMID: 26085661.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Antarctic notothenioid fish: what are the future consequences of 'losses' and 'gains' acquired during long-term evolution at cold and stable temperatures? AU - Beers,Jody M, AU - Jayasundara,Nishad, PY - 2015/6/19/entrez PY - 2015/6/19/pubmed PY - 2016/6/9/medline KW - Acclimation capacity KW - Biochemical adaptation KW - Climate change KW - Cold adapted KW - Hemoglobin KW - Icefish KW - Stenothermal KW - Thermal tolerance SP - 1834 EP - 45 JF - The Journal of experimental biology JO - J Exp Biol VL - 218 IS - Pt 12 N2 - Antarctic notothenioids dominate the fish fauna of the Southern Ocean. Evolution for millions of years at cold and stable temperatures has led to the acquisition of numerous biochemical traits that allow these fishes to thrive in sub-zero waters. The gain of antifreeze glycoproteins has afforded notothenioids the ability to avert freezing and survive at temperatures often hovering near the freezing point of seawater. Additionally, possession of cold-adapted proteins and membranes permits them to sustain appropriate metabolic rates at exceptionally low body temperatures. The notothenioid genome is also distinguished by the disappearance of traits in some species, losses that might prove costly in a warmer environment. Perhaps the best-illustrated example is the lack of expression of hemoglobin in white-blooded icefishes from the family Channichthyidae. Loss of key elements of the cellular stress response, notably the heat shock response, has also been observed. Along with their attainment of cold tolerance, notothenioids have developed an extreme stenothermy and many species perish at temperatures only a few degrees above their habitat temperatures. Thus, in light of today's rapidly changing climate, it is critical to evaluate how these extreme stenotherms will respond to rising ocean temperatures. It is conceivable that the remarkable cold specialization of notothenioids may ultimately leave them vulnerable to future thermal increases and threaten their fitness and survival. Within this context, our review provides a current summary of the biochemical losses and gains that are known for notothenioids and examines these cold-adapted traits with a focus on processes underlying thermal tolerance and acclimation capacity. SN - 1477-9145 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26085661/Antarctic_notothenioid_fish:_what_are_the_future_consequences_of_'losses'_and_'gains'_acquired_during_long_term_evolution_at_cold_and_stable_temperatures L2 - http://jeb.biologists.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=26085661 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -