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Extended plasma cannabinoid excretion in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during sustained abstinence and correlation with psychomotor performance.
Drug Test Anal. 2016 Jul; 8(7):682-9.DT

Abstract

Cannabis smoking increases motor vehicle accident risk. Empirically defined cannabinoid detection windows are important to drugged driving legislation. Our aims were to establish plasma cannabinoid detection windows in frequent cannabis smokers and to determine if residual cannabinoid concentrations were correlated with psychomotor performance. Twenty-eight male chronic frequent cannabis smokers resided on a secure research unit for up to 33 days with daily blood collection. Plasma specimens were analyzed for Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Critical tracking and divided attention tasks were administered at baseline (after overnight stay to ensure lack of acute intoxication) and after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of cannabis abstinence. Twenty-seven of the twenty-eight participants were THC-positive at admission (median 4.2 µg/L). THC concentrations significantly decreased 24 h after admission, but were still ≥2 µg/L in 16 of the 28 participants 48 h after admission. THC was detected in 3 of 5 specimens on day 30. The last positive 11-OH-THC specimen was 15 days after admission. THCCOOH was measureable in 4 of 5 participants after 30 days of abstinence. Years of prior cannabis use significantly correlated with THC concentrations on admission, and days 7 and 14. Tracking error, evaluated by the Divided Attention Task, was the only evaluated psychomotor assessment significantly correlated with cannabinoid concentrations at baseline and day 8 (11-OH-THC only). Median THC was 0.3 µg/L in 5 chronic frequent cannabis smokers' plasma samples after 30 days of sustained abstinence. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, 251 Bayview Blvd. Suite 05A721, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA. Currently at Armed Forces Medical Examiner System, Division of Forensic Toxicology, 115 Purple Heart Drive, Dover AFB, DE, 19902, USA.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, 251 Bayview Blvd. Suite 05A721, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA.Molecular Imaging Branch, IRP, National Institute on Mental Health, NIH, 6001 Executive Blvd., Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA. Currently at Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Turku, 20014, Turun yliopisto, Finland.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, 251 Bayview Blvd. Suite 05A721, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA. Currently at 7 Church Lane, Suite 15A, Pikesville, MD, 21208, USA.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, 251 Bayview Blvd. Suite 05A721, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA. Currently at Institute for Neuroscience and Medicine-4, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425, Jülich, Germany. Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology, Maastricht University, 6211 LK, Maastricht, The Netherlands.Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology, Maastricht University, 6211 LK, Maastricht, The Netherlands.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, 251 Bayview Blvd. Suite 05A721, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26097154

Citation

Karschner, Erin L., et al. "Extended Plasma Cannabinoid Excretion in Chronic Frequent Cannabis Smokers During Sustained Abstinence and Correlation With Psychomotor Performance." Drug Testing and Analysis, vol. 8, no. 7, 2016, pp. 682-9.
Karschner EL, Swortwood MJ, Hirvonen J, et al. Extended plasma cannabinoid excretion in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during sustained abstinence and correlation with psychomotor performance. Drug Test Anal. 2016;8(7):682-9.
Karschner, E. L., Swortwood, M. J., Hirvonen, J., Goodwin, R. S., Bosker, W. M., Ramaekers, J. G., & Huestis, M. A. (2016). Extended plasma cannabinoid excretion in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during sustained abstinence and correlation with psychomotor performance. Drug Testing and Analysis, 8(7), 682-9. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1825
Karschner EL, et al. Extended Plasma Cannabinoid Excretion in Chronic Frequent Cannabis Smokers During Sustained Abstinence and Correlation With Psychomotor Performance. Drug Test Anal. 2016;8(7):682-9. PubMed PMID: 26097154.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Extended plasma cannabinoid excretion in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during sustained abstinence and correlation with psychomotor performance. AU - Karschner,Erin L, AU - Swortwood,Madeleine J, AU - Hirvonen,Jussi, AU - Goodwin,Robert S, AU - Bosker,Wendy M, AU - Ramaekers,Johannes G, AU - Huestis,Marilyn A, Y1 - 2015/06/11/ PY - 2015/04/03/received PY - 2015/05/08/revised PY - 2015/05/19/accepted PY - 2015/6/23/entrez PY - 2015/6/23/pubmed PY - 2017/3/16/medline KW - abstinence KW - cannabinoid KW - cannabis KW - chronic KW - Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol SP - 682 EP - 9 JF - Drug testing and analysis JO - Drug Test Anal VL - 8 IS - 7 N2 - Cannabis smoking increases motor vehicle accident risk. Empirically defined cannabinoid detection windows are important to drugged driving legislation. Our aims were to establish plasma cannabinoid detection windows in frequent cannabis smokers and to determine if residual cannabinoid concentrations were correlated with psychomotor performance. Twenty-eight male chronic frequent cannabis smokers resided on a secure research unit for up to 33 days with daily blood collection. Plasma specimens were analyzed for Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Critical tracking and divided attention tasks were administered at baseline (after overnight stay to ensure lack of acute intoxication) and after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of cannabis abstinence. Twenty-seven of the twenty-eight participants were THC-positive at admission (median 4.2 µg/L). THC concentrations significantly decreased 24 h after admission, but were still ≥2 µg/L in 16 of the 28 participants 48 h after admission. THC was detected in 3 of 5 specimens on day 30. The last positive 11-OH-THC specimen was 15 days after admission. THCCOOH was measureable in 4 of 5 participants after 30 days of abstinence. Years of prior cannabis use significantly correlated with THC concentrations on admission, and days 7 and 14. Tracking error, evaluated by the Divided Attention Task, was the only evaluated psychomotor assessment significantly correlated with cannabinoid concentrations at baseline and day 8 (11-OH-THC only). Median THC was 0.3 µg/L in 5 chronic frequent cannabis smokers' plasma samples after 30 days of sustained abstinence. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. SN - 1942-7611 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26097154/Extended_plasma_cannabinoid_excretion_in_chronic_frequent_cannabis_smokers_during_sustained_abstinence_and_correlation_with_psychomotor_performance_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1825 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -