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Significance of selenium in thyroid physiology and pathology.

Abstract

Selenium is pivotal element in maintaining homeostasis of human body. It is capable of exerting an influence on immunological responses, cell growth and viral defence. Nevertheless, it is mostly required for the proper thyroid function. There were described 25 selenoproteins, which play various roles in human body. Selenium is an essential particle in the active site of enzymes such as GPXs (glutathione peroxidases), Ds (deiodinases) and TRs (thioredoxin reductases). Owing to this, it has a fundamental importance in the synthesis and function of thyroid hormones, and protects cells against free radicals and oxidative damage. Intake of selenium necessary to maintain suitable selenoenzyme activity ranges from 60 μg to 75 μg per day. Selenium deficiency contributes to decreased activity of GPXs, which can lead to oxidative damage, or Ds, which is connected with impaired thyroid activity. Moreover, a low selenium concentration causes autoimmune processes in the thyroid gland, thus selenium deficiency is essential in pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroiditis or Graves' disease. Because of regulation of the cell cycle, a decreased concentration of selenium impacts on the development of thyroid cancer.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Medical University of Poznan, Poland: Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine.

    Medical University of Poznan, Poland: Student's Scientific Society.

    Source

    MeSH

    Humans
    Selenium
    Thyroid Diseases
    Thyroid Function Tests
    Thyroid Gland
    Thyroid Hormones

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    26098657

    Citation

    Lacka, Katarzyna, and Anna Szeliga. "Significance of Selenium in Thyroid Physiology and Pathology." Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski : Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego, vol. 38, no. 228, 2015, pp. 348-53.
    Lacka K, Szeliga A. Significance of selenium in thyroid physiology and pathology. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2015;38(228):348-53.
    Lacka, K., & Szeliga, A. (2015). Significance of selenium in thyroid physiology and pathology. Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski : Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego, 38(228), pp. 348-53.
    Lacka K, Szeliga A. Significance of Selenium in Thyroid Physiology and Pathology. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2015;38(228):348-53. PubMed PMID: 26098657.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Significance of selenium in thyroid physiology and pathology. AU - Lacka,Katarzyna, AU - Szeliga,Anna, PY - 2015/6/23/entrez PY - 2015/6/23/pubmed PY - 2015/8/22/medline KW - autoimmunity KW - selenium KW - thyroid SP - 348 EP - 53 JF - Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego JO - Pol. Merkur. Lekarski VL - 38 IS - 228 N2 - Selenium is pivotal element in maintaining homeostasis of human body. It is capable of exerting an influence on immunological responses, cell growth and viral defence. Nevertheless, it is mostly required for the proper thyroid function. There were described 25 selenoproteins, which play various roles in human body. Selenium is an essential particle in the active site of enzymes such as GPXs (glutathione peroxidases), Ds (deiodinases) and TRs (thioredoxin reductases). Owing to this, it has a fundamental importance in the synthesis and function of thyroid hormones, and protects cells against free radicals and oxidative damage. Intake of selenium necessary to maintain suitable selenoenzyme activity ranges from 60 μg to 75 μg per day. Selenium deficiency contributes to decreased activity of GPXs, which can lead to oxidative damage, or Ds, which is connected with impaired thyroid activity. Moreover, a low selenium concentration causes autoimmune processes in the thyroid gland, thus selenium deficiency is essential in pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroiditis or Graves' disease. Because of regulation of the cell cycle, a decreased concentration of selenium impacts on the development of thyroid cancer. SN - 1426-9686 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26098657/Significance_of_selenium_in_thyroid_physiology_and_pathology_ L2 - http://medpress.com.pl/pubmed.php?article=228348 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -