Examining the association between posttraumatic stress disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.J Clin Psychiatry 2016; 77(1):72-83JC
To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
We reviewed literature through PubMed and PsycINFO without a specified date range, utilizing the search (posttraumatic stress disorder OR PTSD) AND (ADHD OR attention deficit hyperactivity disorder OR ADD OR attention deficit disorder OR hyperkinetic syndrome OR minimal brain dysfunction). References from relevant articles were reviewed.
We identified 402 articles; 28 met criteria. We included original human research in English that operationalized diagnoses of ADHD and PTSD, evaluated the relationship between the disorders, and included controls. We excluded articles that failed to differentiate ADHD or PTSD from nonspecific or subsyndromal deficits or failed to compare their relationship.
We extracted sample size, age, diagnostic methods, design, referral status, control type, and number of subjects with and without ADHD and PTSD alone and combined. We computed meta-analyses for 22 studies examining ADHD in PTSD and PTSD in ADHD using a random effects model and meta-analytic regression. We assessed for heterogeneity and publication bias and adjusted for intrastudy clustering.
The relative risk (RR) for PTSD in ADHD was 2.9 (P < .0005); in samples using healthy controls, the RR was 3.7 (P = .001); and in samples using traumatized controls, the RR was 1.6 (P = .003). The RR for ADHD in PTSD was 1.7 (P < .0005); in samples using traumatized controls, the RR was 2.1 (P < .0005). The association was not significant in samples using psychiatric controls.
Results indicate a bidirectional association between ADHD and PTSD, suggesting clinical implications and highlighting the need for neurobiological research that examines the mechanisms underlying this connection.