Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Compared With Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Proximal Left Anterior Descending Artery Treatment in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome: Analysis From the ACUITY Trial.J Invasive Cardiol 2015; 27(10):468-73JI
The optimal revascularization strategy in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and proximal left anterior descending (pLAD) coronary artery lesions is not well defined. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of ACS patients with pLAD culprit lesions receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) vs coronary artery bypass graft (CABG).
The ACUITY trial was a multicenter, prospective trial of patients with ACS treated with an early invasive strategy. Major adverse cardiac event (MACE; defined as death, myocardial infarction [MI], and repeat revascularization) and stroke were compared at 30 days and 1 year between PCI and CABG in patients with significant stenosis of the pLAD undergoing revascularization. Postprocedural major bleeding was evaluated at 30 days.
Among patients with a significant pLAD stenosis (n = 842), a total of 562 (66.7%) underwent PCI and 280 (33.3%) underwent CABG. Baseline characteristics, including age, sex, diabetes, and TIMI risk score, were well matched between groups; however, patients undergoing PCI were more likely to have had previous CABG (21.9% vs 6.4%; P<.001). Death, MI, MACE, and stroke rates did not differ between groups at 1 year. PCI patients had lower bleeding rates (8.1% vs 52.4%; P<.001) and blood product transfusion at 30 days (4.5% vs 41.3%; P<.001), but higher rates of unplanned revascularization at 1 year (12.7% vs 5.2%; P<.01). These results were consistent in patients with single vs multivessel disease and in diabetics vs non-diabetics.
Among ACS patients with pLAD culprit lesions, an initial revascularization strategy of PCI compared with CABG yields similar 1-year death, MI, and MACE rates, although unplanned revascularization is more common after PCI.