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Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Aug; 102(2):309-15.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Butter is known to have a cholesterol-raising effect and, therefore, has often been included as a negative control in dietary studies, whereas the effect of moderate butter intake has not been elucidated to our knowledge.

OBJECTIVE

We compared the effects of moderate butter intake, moderate olive oil intake, and a habitual diet on blood lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), glucose, and insulin.

DESIGN

The study was a controlled, double-blinded, randomized 2 × 5-wk crossover dietary intervention study with a 14-d run-in period during which subjects consumed their habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil.

RESULTS

Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m²) of 40.4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P < 0.05) and the run-in period (P < 0.005 and P < 0.05, respectively) and increased HDL cholesterol compared with the run-in period (P < 0.05). No difference in effects was observed for triacylglycerol, hsCRP, insulin, and glucose concentrations. The intake of saturated fatty acids was significantly higher in the butter period than in the olive oil and run-in periods (P < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS

Moderate intake of butter resulted in increases in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol compared with the effects of olive oil intake and a habitual diet (run-in period). Furthermore, moderate butter intake was also followed by an increase in HDL cholesterol compared with the habitual diet. We conclude that hypercholesterolemic people should keep their consumption of butter to a minimum, whereas moderate butter intake may be considered part of the diet in the normocholesterolemic population.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutrition, Exercise, and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark saraengel@nexs.ku.dk.Department of Nutrition, Exercise, and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26135349

Citation

Engel, Sara, and Tine Tholstrup. "Butter Increased Total and LDL Cholesterol Compared With Olive Oil but Resulted in Higher HDL Cholesterol Compared With a Habitual Diet." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 102, no. 2, 2015, pp. 309-15.
Engel S, Tholstrup T. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(2):309-15.
Engel, S., & Tholstrup, T. (2015). Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 102(2), 309-15. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.115.112227
Engel S, Tholstrup T. Butter Increased Total and LDL Cholesterol Compared With Olive Oil but Resulted in Higher HDL Cholesterol Compared With a Habitual Diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(2):309-15. PubMed PMID: 26135349.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet. AU - Engel,Sara, AU - Tholstrup,Tine, Y1 - 2015/07/01/ PY - 2015/04/07/received PY - 2015/05/26/accepted PY - 2015/7/3/entrez PY - 2015/7/3/pubmed PY - 2015/10/20/medline KW - blood lipids KW - butter KW - cholesterol KW - dairy KW - olive oil SP - 309 EP - 15 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 102 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Butter is known to have a cholesterol-raising effect and, therefore, has often been included as a negative control in dietary studies, whereas the effect of moderate butter intake has not been elucidated to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of moderate butter intake, moderate olive oil intake, and a habitual diet on blood lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), glucose, and insulin. DESIGN: The study was a controlled, double-blinded, randomized 2 × 5-wk crossover dietary intervention study with a 14-d run-in period during which subjects consumed their habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil. RESULTS: Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m²) of 40.4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P < 0.05) and the run-in period (P < 0.005 and P < 0.05, respectively) and increased HDL cholesterol compared with the run-in period (P < 0.05). No difference in effects was observed for triacylglycerol, hsCRP, insulin, and glucose concentrations. The intake of saturated fatty acids was significantly higher in the butter period than in the olive oil and run-in periods (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate intake of butter resulted in increases in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol compared with the effects of olive oil intake and a habitual diet (run-in period). Furthermore, moderate butter intake was also followed by an increase in HDL cholesterol compared with the habitual diet. We conclude that hypercholesterolemic people should keep their consumption of butter to a minimum, whereas moderate butter intake may be considered part of the diet in the normocholesterolemic population. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26135349/Butter_increased_total_and_LDL_cholesterol_compared_with_olive_oil_but_resulted_in_higher_HDL_cholesterol_compared_with_a_habitual_diet_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.115.112227 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -